Design Manual For Structural Stainless Steel


The SteelConstructionInstituteDesign Manual ForStructural Stainless Steel(Third Edition) 18 April 2006Stainless Steel

National ContactsCentre Technique Industriel de laConstruction Métallique (CTICM)F-78471 Saint Rémy Lès ChevreuseCedexFranceTel: 33 1 30 852500Fax: 33 1 30 g Stahlanwendung e. V.Postfach 10 48 42D-40039 DüsseldorfGermanyTel: 49 211 6707 856Fax: 49 211 6707 840Web:http://www.stahlforschung.deCentro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM)Via di Castel Romano, 10000128 RomeItalyTel: 39 06 5055829Fax: 39 06 5055202Email: marketing.csm@c-s-m.itWeb:http://www.c-s-m.itThe Steel Construction Institute (SCI)Silwood ParkAscotBerks SL5 7QNUnited KingdomTel: 44 1344 623345Fax: 44 1344 622944Email: gEuro Inox241 route d’ArlonL-1150 LuxembourgTel: 352 261 03 050Fax: 352 261 03 .orgThe Swedish Institute of Steel Construction(SBI)PO Box 27751SE-115 92 Stockholm, SwedenTel: 46 8 661 02 80Fax: 46 8 661 03 05Email: info@sbi.seWeb: - Blaise Pascal UniversityCivil Engineering DepartmentRue des Meuniers, BP 20663174 Aubiere cedexFranceTel: 33 4 73 40 75 00Fax: 33 4 73 40 75 10Web:http://cust.univ-bpclermont.frUniversitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)Dept. Ingeniería de la ConstrucciónMódulo C1 Campus NorteC/Jordi Girona, 1-308034, Barcelona, SpainTel: 34 93 401 6516Fax: 34 93 405 4135Web:http://www.upc.esRWTH AachenInstitute of Steel ConstructionMies-van-der-Rohe-Str. 1D-52074 AachenGermanyTel: 49 241 80 25177Fax 49 241 80 22140Web:http://www.rwth-aachen.deVTT Technical Research Centre of FinlandBuilding materials and productsPO Box 1000FI-02044 VTTFinlandTel: 358 20 722 111Fax: 358 20 722 7001Web:http://www.vtt.fiFront cover photograph:Extension of Finnish Parliament Building, Helsinki, Finland, 2004The glass façade is supported by stainless steel square hollow sections (70 x 70 x 4 mm) in grade 1.4571 whichwere supplied in the cold worked condition CP350.Architectural design: Pekka Helin & Co Architects, HelsinkiPhotographer: Michael Perlmutter, Stockholm

Design Manual For StructuralStainless Steel(Third Edition)

2006 Euro Inox and The Steel Construction InstituteISBN 2-87997-204-3(Second edition 2002: ISBN 2-87997-037-7)Euro Inox and The Steel Construction Institute have made every effort to ensure that the information presented here istechnically correct. However, the reader is advised that the material contained therein is for general information purposesonly. Euro Inox, The Steel Construction Institute and any other contributor specifically disclaim any liability orresponsibility for loss, damage or injury, resulting from the use of the information contained in this publication.CD-ROM, 7 languagesISBN 2-87997-187-XFinnish versionISBN 2-87997-208-6French versionISBN 2-87997-205-1German versionISBN 2-87997-210-8Italian versionISBN 2-87997-206-XSpanish versionISBN 2-87997-207-8Swedish versionISBN 2-87997-209-4ii

PREFACEThird EditionThis Third Edition of the Design Manual has been prepared by The Steel ConstructionInstitute as a deliverable of the RFCS Project - Valorisation Project – Structural design ofcold worked austenitic stainless steel (contract RFS2-CT-2005-00036). It is a completerevision of the Second Edition, extending the scope to include cold worked austeniticstainless steels and updating all the references to draft Eurocodes. The Third Editionrefers to the relevant parts of EN 1990, EN 1991 and EN 1993. The structural firedesign approach in Section 7 has been updated and new sections on the durability ofstainless steel in soil and life cycle costing have been added.Three new design examples have been included to demonstrate the appropriate use ofcold worked stainless steel. They were completed by the following partners: Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) The Swedish Institute of Steel Construction (SBI) Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT)A project steering committee, including representatives from each partner and sponsoringorganisation, oversaw the work and contributed to the development of the DesignManual. The following organizations participated in the preparation of the Third Edition: The Steel Construction Institute (SCI) Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM) CUST, Blaise Pascal University Euro Inox RWTH Aachen, Institute of Steel Construction VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland The Swedish Institute of Steel Construction (SBI) Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)(Project co-ordinator)Preface to the Second EditionThis Design Manual has been prepared by The Steel Construction Institute as adeliverable of the ECSC funded project, Valorisation Project – Development of the use ofstainless steel in construction (contract 7215-PP-056). It is a complete revision of theDesign manual for structural stainless steel, which was prepared by The SteelConstruction Institute between 1989 and 1992 and published by Euro Inox in 1994.This new edition takes into account advances in understanding in the structural behaviourof stainless steel over the last 10 years. In particular, it includes the new designrecommendations from the recently completed ECSC funded project, Development of theuse of stainless steel in construction (contract 7210-SA/842), which has led to the scopeof the Manual being extended to cover circular hollow sections and fire resistant design.Over the last ten years a great many new European standards have been issued coveringiii

stainless steel material, fasteners, fabrication, erection, welding etc. The Manual hasbeen updated to make reference to current standards and data in these standards.A project steering committee, including representatives from each partner, sub-contractorand sponsoring organisation, oversaw the work and contributed to the development of theManual.The worked examples were completed by the following partners: Centre Technique Industriel de la Construction Métallique (CTICM) Luleå Institute of Technology RWTH Aachen VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland The Steel Construction Institute (SCI)The following people were members of the steering committee and/or completed thedesign examples:Nancy BaddooThe Steel Construction InstituteMassimo BarteriCentro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM)Bassam BurganThe Steel Construction InstituteHelena Burstrand KnutssonThe Swedish Institute of Steel Construction (SBI)Lars HamrebjörkThe Swedish Institute of Steel Construction (SBI)Jouko KouhiVTT Technical Research Centre of FinlandRoland MartlandHealth and Safety Executive (UK)Enrique MirambellUniversitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)Anders OlssonAvestaPolarit AB (formerly, Luleå Inst. of Technology)Thomas PaulyEuro InoxEsther RealUniversitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)Ivor RyanCentre Technique Industriel de la Construction MétalliqueHeiko StangenbergRWTH Aachen Institute of Steel ConstructionAsko TaljaVTT Technical Research Centre of FinlandACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe following organisations provided financial support for this edition of the DesignManual and their assistance is gratefully acknowledged: Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS) (formerly, European Coal and SteelCommunity (ECSC)) Euro InoxThe contribution made to this and the previous two editions by the European stainlesssteel producers and other organisations is also gratefully acknowledged.iv

FOREWORDThis Design Manual has been prepared for the guidance of engineers experienced in thedesign of carbon steel structural steelwork though not necessarily in stainless steelstructures. It is not in any way intended to have a legal status or absolve the engineer ofresponsibility to ensure that a safe and functional structure results.The Manual is divided into two parts: Part I-Recommendations Part II-Design ExamplesThe Recommendations in Part I are formulated in terms of limit state philosophy and,where appropriate, are in compliance with the following Parts of Eurocode 3 Design ofsteel structures:EN 1993-1-1Design of steel structures: General rules and rules for buildingsEN 1993-1-2Design of steel structures: Structural fire designEN 1993-1-3Design of steel structures: General rules: Supplementary rules forcold-formed members and sheetingEN 1993-1-4Design of steel structures: General rules: Supplementary rules forstainless steelsEN 1993-1-5Design of steel structures: Plated structural elementsEN 1993-1-8Design of steel structures: Design of jointsEN 1993-1-9Design of steel structures: FatigueEN 1993-1-10 Design of steel structures: Material toughness and through-thicknesspropertiesThis Design Manual gives recommended values for certain factors. These values may besubject to modification at a national level by the National Annexes.The Design Examples contained in Part II demonstrate the use of the recommendations.A cross-reference system locates that section of the examples corresponding to aparticular recommendation.The Recommendations and Design Examples are available online at Steelbiz, an SCItechnical information system (, and from the Euro Inox web site( A Commentary to the Recommendations, which includes a full setof references, is also available online at these web sites. The purpose of theCommentary is to allow the designer to assess the basis of the recommendations and tofacilitate the development of revisions as and when new data become available.Opportunity is taken to present the results of various test programmes conductedspecifically to provide background data for the Design Manual. The Recommendations,Design Examples and Commentary are also available on CD from Euro Inox.v

An online design facility is available at for designingcold-formed stainless steel members subject to axial tension, bending or axialcompression. The design facility calculates section properties and member resistances inaccordance with the Recommendations in this Design Manual.The design recommendations presented in this document are based upon the bestknowledge available at the time of publication. However, no responsibility of any kindfor injury, death, loss, damage or delay, however caused, resulting from the use of therecommendations can be accepted by the project partners or others associated with

ContentsPage No.PREFACEiiiACKNOWLEDGEMENTSiiiFOREWORDvPART I – onventions for member axes1.4Units111342BASIS OF DESIGN2.1General requirements2.2Limit state design2.3Loading55573MATERIALS: PROPERTIES, SELECTION AND DURABILITY3.1Material grades3.2Mechanical behaviour and design values of properties3.3Physical properties3.4Effects of temperature3.5Life cycle costing3.6Selection of materials3.7Durability11111621212223254PROPERTIES OF SECTIONS4.1General4.2Maximum width-to-thickness ratios4.3Classification of cross-sections4.4Effective widths4.5Stiffened elements4.6Calculation of section properties4.7Resistances of cross-sections34343434384346495MEMBER DESIGN5.1Introduction5.2Tension members5.3Compression members5.4Flexural members5.5Members subject to combinations of axial load and bendingmoments5454545458JOINT DESIGN6.1General recommendations6.2Bolted connections7171736vii68

6.36.4Mechanical fasteners for thin gauge materialWelded connections78787DESIGN FOR FIRE RESISTANCE7.1General7.2Mechanical properties at elevated temperatures7.3Thermal properties at elevated temperatures7.4Determination of structural fire 2Stress-strain curve determination9.3Tests on members9595959510FABRICATION ASPECTS10.1 Introduction10.2 Storage and handling10.3 Shaping operations10.4 Welding10.5 Galling and seizure10.6 Finishing97979898100104105APPENDIX ACorrelation between stainless steel designations107APPENDIX BLateral-torsional buckling109APPENDIX CMaterial data for deflection calculations113PART II – DESIGN EXAMPLESDesign example 1117Design example 2119Design example 3123Design example 4131Design example 5135Design example 6143Design example 7149Design example 8155Design example 9161Design example 10169Design example 11177Design example 12183Design example 13191viii

PART 1 - RECOMMENDATIONS1INTRODUCTION1.1ScopeThe recommendations given in this part of the Design Manual apply to thegrades of stainless steel that are typically used in structural applications. Therecommendations are intended primarily for the design of elements andsecondary structural components of buildings, offshore installations and similarstructures. They should not be applied to special structures such as those innuclear installations or pressure vessels for which specific standards for stainlesssteel application already exist.The recommendations concern aspects of material behaviour, the design of coldformed and welded members, and their connections. They are applicable to theaustenitic and duplex grades of stainless steel that are typically used in structuralor architectural applications. The recommendations have been formulated usinglimit state philosophy.1.2SymbolsIn general, the symbols used in this Design Manual are the same as used inEN 1993-1-1: Eurocode 3, Design of steel structures: General rules and rulesfor buildings. Extensive use is made of subscripts, e.g. Nb,z,Rd is the designresistance (subscript Rd) of a column under axial load (N) to buckling (subscriptb) about the minor axis (subscript z).Dimensions and axes of sections are illustrated in Figure 1.1. Note thatcontrary to normal practice in many countries, the major axis of a section isnormally y-y and the minor axis z-z, see Section 1.3.Latin upper case lettersACEFGILMNQRVWAccidental action; AreaFixed value; FactorModulus of elasticity; Effect of actionsAction; ForcePermanent action; Shear modulusSecond moment of areaLength; Span; System lengthBending momentAxial forceVariable actionResistanceShear forceSection modulus1

Greek upper case letters Differenc

Design manual for structural stainless steel, which was prepared by The Steel Construction Institute between 1989 and 1992 and published by Euro Inox in 1994. This new edition takes into account advances in understanding in the structural behaviour of stainless steel over the last 10 years. In particular, it includes the new design recommendations from the recently completed ECSC funded .File Size: 635KBPage Count: 146