FOUNDATIONENGINEERINGHANDBOOKSecond EditionEdited byHSAI-YANG FANGPh.D.Professor of Civil Engineering and Director, GeotechnicalEngineering Division, Fritz Engineering Laboratory, Lehigh University VAN NOSTRANO REINHOLDNew York

CONTENTSPreface xvList of Contri butorsxvi i1 SUBSURFACE EXPLORATIONS ANO SAMPLINGJohn Lowe 111 a n d Philip F. Zacche o1 . 91.20l ntroduction 1Plann ing an Exploratio n ProgramReconnaissance lnvestigations 2Explorations for Preliminary Design 6Explorations for Detailed Design 8Geophysical Explorations 8Soundings and Probings 12Boring Methods 14Excavation Methods for Exploration 29Groundwater lnvestigations 30Test Grouting 37Representative but Disturbed Samples 37Undisturbed Samples 43In Situ So il Testi ng in Boreholes 51Rock Coring 53Miscellaneous Exploratory Techniques 59Preservation, Shipment, and Storage of Samples 61Logs of Subsurface Explorations 64Contracting and Supervising Exploratory Programs 68Subsurface Explorations Reports 692 SAMPLING ANO PREPARATION O F MAR INE SEOIMENTSRonald C . Chaney2. ntroduction 72Offshore / Nearshore Soil Samples 75Handling, Wrapping, and Labeling 80Storage 82Preparation of Soil Samples 83Laboratory versus l n-Situ Properties 843 SOIL TECHNOLOGY ANO ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF SOILSHans F. Winterko r n a n d Hsai-Yang Fang3. of Soil 88Descript ion and ldentification of Soils 88Rocks and Their Classification 92Physical Properties Employed in Eng ineering Classifications of Soil MaterialsSoil Classification Systems 102Soil Types by Deposition or Other Special Features 10999vii

lE.cbviiiContents ixContentsThe Structure of Noncohesive Soil Systems 1153.7The Structure of Cohesive Soils 1193.8Capillarity and Conduction Phenomena 1253.93.10 Effect of Temperature on Engineering Properties of Soils3.11 Densification ( Compaction ) 1313.12 Consoli dation 1323.13 Shear Strength 1 343.14 ln -Situ Measurements of Soil Properties 1387.37.47. .97 .107 .11129Methods of Groundwater Contro! 236Field Pumping Tests 239Design of Predrainage Systems 241Managing Groundwater Contro! 244Disputes over Groundwater Contro! 245Cost of Groundwater Contro! 245Undesirable Side- Effects of Dewatering 246Permanent Dewatering Systems 246Ground Freezing 2474 BEARING CAPACITY OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONSWai - Fah Chen and William O. McCarron8 COMPACTED FI LLJack W . H i lf4. O4. ntroduction 144Methods of Analysis 144Soil Governing Parameters 145Bearing Capacity by the Upper- Bound Method 145Bearing Capacity by the Lower- Bound M ethod 150Footi ng Depth and Shape and lncli ned and Eccentric Loads 152Footing Shape, Depth, and lnclination Effects 154Nonhomogeneous Foundations and An isotropie Strength 154lnfluence of Groundwater Table 156Comments o n Bearing Capacity Solutions 157Sliding Stability of Gravity Structures 157Choice of Safety Factor 158Example Problems 1 59Numerica! Evaluatio n of Bearing Capacity 1615 STRESS DISTRIBUTION ANO SETTLEMENT OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONSRobert D . Holtzl ntroduction 166Settlement of Shallow Foundations 167Applicability of the Theory of Elasticity to Calculation of Stresses and Displacements in Earth MassesCalculation of lnitial Distortion Settlements 170Distortion Settlement of Granular Soils 177Calculation of Stress Distributions 185Consolidation Settlements 192Secondary Compression Settlements 209To lerable Criteria 212Foundation Treatment Alternates 2163099 SOIL STABI LIZATION ANO GROUTIN GHans F. Winterkor n and Sibel PamukcuV Olntroduction 249Soil Compaction 249Compaction Equ ipment 273Contro! of Compaction 294M iscellaneous Problems in ntroductio n 317Principia of Soi l Stabilization 317M ethods of Soil Stabilization 318Stabil ization of Soils with Granu lar SKeleton 319Chemical Stabi lization 324Cement Stabi lization 328Lime Stabilization 337Ash and Slag Stabilization 344Bituminous Stabilization 346Thermal and Electroki netic Stabilization 349Construction 351Grouting Principles 353Grouting Techniques 354Planning of the Grouting Project 358The Grouting Process 363Contro! of Grouts and Grouting Operations 368Examples of Applications of Grouting 36910 STABILITY OF EARTH S LOPESHsai -Yang Fang and George K. Mikroudis6 EARTH PRESSURESG. W . Clough and J . M. Duncan6. t- Rest Latera l Pressures 224Active and Passive Latera! Earth Pressures 224Soii- Structure lnteraction for Unmoving Walls 228Earth Pressures due to Surface Loads 229Earth Pressures due to Compaction 230Relation Between Earth Pressures and Wall MovementsEarth Pressures for Design 2347 DEWATERING ANO GROUNDWATER CONTROLJ . Patrick Powers7.17.2lmpact of Groundwater on Construction 236Design of Structures Below the Water Table 2362321 0.110.21 0.310.410.510.610.710.8l ntroduction 379Factors Affecting Slope Stabi lity A nalysis 379Factor of Safety 380Slope Stability Analysis Procedure : Limit Equilibrium Methods 381Slope Stability Analysis Procedure : Limit Analysis Methods 395Methods Considering Seismic Effects 399Slope Stability in Soils Presenting Special Problems 404Computer-Aided and Expert Systems for Slope Stability A nalysis 40611 LANDSLIDESBengt B. Broms and Kai S . Wong11 .111.211 .3l ntroduction 41 OCauses of Landslides 411Consequences of Landslides415

xContents xiContents11.411 .511 .611 .711 .811 .9Slope Movements Preceding LandslidesClassification 417lnvestigations for Landslides 425Analysis of Landslides 427lnstrumentation 432M ethods of Correcting Landslides 43515.3t5.441515.516lCinJlH . Bolton Seed16.116.216.316.416.5lntroduction 447Restrained Retaining Structures 447Gravity Structures 478Cantilever Retain ing Walls 503Special Structures 504Sheet Piling and H- Piles 507girKlm lbrcs,CfcorononononShaking lntensity and Associated Structural DamageGround Settlement 614Liquefaction Potential 614Landslides 619Ronald C . Chaney and Sibel Pamukcu13 PILE FOUNDATIONSBengt H . 513.16lntroduction and Backg round 511Aspects for Generai Consideration 512The Shaft Resistance 513Toe Resistance 516Capacity Determined from ln- Situ Field Testing 517lnstallation Considerations 517Residua! Compression 517The Neutral Piane 518Capacity of a Pile Group 520Summary of Design Procedure for Capacity and StrengthSettlement of Pile Foundat ions 521Static Testing of Piles 524Pile Dynamics 529Horizontally Loaded Piles 531Seismic Design of Lateral Pil e Behavior 533Design Example lntroduction 537Generai Behavior Patterns 537Axial Compression Capacity 538Drained Axial Compression Capacity 539Undrained Axial Compression Capacity 545Axial Uplift Capacity 548Belled Shafts 549Compression and Uplift Displacements 549Other Site and Loading Conditions 550Closing Comments on Design 551Pertinent Standards and Specifications 551l ntroduction 553M achine Foundation Vibrations : Statement of th e Problemlntroduction 673lrrotational Seismic Waves 673Shear Seismic Waves 675Case History 67718 OFFSHORE STRUCTURE FOUNDATIONSRonald C. Chaney and Kenneth R. Demarslntroduction 679Loading on Foundations 684Pile Structures in Marine EnvironmentGravity Platforms 702Anchor Uplift Capacity 712Pipelines 716Jack- Up Platforms 723Hydraulic Filled lslands 72768419 FOUNDATIONS IN COLO REGIONSArvind Phukan15 FOUNDATION VIBRATIONSGeorge Gazetas15.115.2lntroduction 623lnfluence of Soil Conditions on Ground Settlement 624lnfluence of Soil Conditions on Liquefaction Potential 628lnfluence of Soil Conditions on Landslides 635Behavior of Clays and Silts During Cyclic Load ing 653Remedy of Earthquake Damage on Soii- Foundation Systems17 FOUNDATION PROBLEMS IN EARTHOUAKE REGIONSLeonardo Zeevaert14 DRILLED SHAFT FOUNDATIONSFred H . Kulhawyccrnl ntroduction 594lnfluence of Soil Conditionslnfluence of Soil Conditionsl nfluence of Soil Conditionsl nfluence of Soil ConditionsPart Il: From 1975 to 1989JhorEARTHQUAKE EFFECTS ON SOIL- FOUNDATION SYSTEMSPart l : Prior to 197512 RETAINING STRUCTURES ANO EXCAVATIONSThomas D . Dismuke12.112.212.312.412.512.6Soil Moduli and Damping- Field and Laboratory Testing Procedures 555Harmonic Vibration of Block Foundations: Definition and Use of lmpedances ( Dynamic " Springs" and" Dashpots" ) 564Computing Dynamic lmpedances : Tables and Charts for Dynamic "Springs" and " Dashpots" 56955319.119.219.31 9.419.519.6l ntroduction 735Frozen Soils: Phases and Temperature ProfilaDesign Approach 737Design Considerations 738Shallow Foundations 742Pile Foundations 745735661597

xiiContentsContents20 GEOTECHNICS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTROL SYSTEMSJeffrey C . Evans20.120.220.320.420.520.620.7l ntroduction 750Soii-Waste lnteractions 750Permeability and Compatibility Testing 752Hazardous Waste Control Systems 760Covers and Liners 762Vertical Barrier Systems and Cutoff Walls 765Generai Guidance 775l ntroduction 778Principle and Advantages of Reinforced EarthHistory and Development 779Behavior of Reinforced Earth 780Design Methods 786Materia! Specifications 790Effects of Water and Dynamic Loading 791A pplications 79277822 GEOSYNTHETICS IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERIN GRobert M . Koerner22.122.222.322.422.522.6l ntroduction 796Geotextiles 796Geogrids 800Geonets 802Geomembranes 804Geocomposites 81023 DEEP COMPACTION OF GRANULAR SOILSBengt B. Broms23.123.223.323.423.523.6l ntroduction 814Vibration Methods 815Displacement Methods 821Loading Methods 827Control Methods 828Cost Comparisons 82924 STABILIZATION OF SOIL WITH LIME COLUMNSBengt B . Broms24.124.224.324.424.524.6l ntroduction 833Principle of the Lime Column Method 837Applications of the Lime Column Method 847Laboratory and Field lnvestigations 850Control Methods 852Schedule for Design and Construction 85325 DURABILITY ANO PROTECTION OF FOUNDATIONSThomas D . Dismuke25.125.2l ntroduction 856Facility Function and Failure Criteria857Properties of Construction Materials, Soil, and WaterSite Data 861Behavior of Materials in Soil and Water 863Evaluation of Site Data 864Protection of Foundations 86585726 GROUND ANCHORS ANO SOIL NAILS IN RETAINING STRUCTURESllan Juran and Victor Elias21 REINFORCED EARTHF. Schlo sser and M . Bastick21 .121 .221 .321 .421 .521 .621 .721 .825.325.425.525.625.726.1lntroduction 868Pri nciples, Historical Development, and Fields of Application 86826.2Technology, Construction Process, and Structural Elements 87126.3Soil-lnclusion l nteraction : Pu ii-Out Capacity Estimates 87726.4Application Criteri a: Advantages an d Limitations 88326.5Feasibility Evaluation 88426.6Short- and Long-Term Performance of Anchors and Nails 88426.7Durability Considerations 88926.8Design of Anchored Walls and Nailed Soii- Reta ining Structures 89026.926.10 Technological Development and Research Needs 902APPENDIXINDEX911907xiii

FOUNDATION ENGINEERING HANDBOOK Second Edition Edited by HSAI-YANG FANG Ph.D. Professor of Civil Engineering and Director, Geotechnical Engineering Division, Fritz Engineering Laboratory, Lehigh University VAN NOSTRANO REINHOLD _ New York . CONTENTS Preface xv List of Contributors xvii 1 SUBSURFACE EXPLORATIONS ANO SAMPLING John Lowe 111 and