Natural Resource Use Planning For Sustainable Agriculture


Workshop ProceedingsNatural Resource UsePlanning for SustainableAgricultureEdited byPrem ChandRajni JainD Suresh KumarJM SinghPS BadalHkk-Ï-vuq-i- – jk"Vªh; o Gf"k vkfFkZdh ,oa uhfr vuqlaèkku laLFkkuICAR – NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND POLICY RESEARCHNEW DELHI-110012

Natural Resource Use Planning for Sustainable AgricultureEdited byPrem Chand, Rajni Jain, D Suresh Kumar, JM Singh and PS Badal 2020 ICAR–National Institute of Agricultural Economics and Policy ResearchPublished by:Dr. Suresh Pal, Director, ICAR-NIAPPrinted at:National Printers, B-56, Naraina Industrial Area, Phase II, New Delhi-110028Phone No.: 011- 42138030, 09811220790

CONTENTSForewordAcknowledgementsAcronyms and Abbreviations1. Resource Use Planning for Sustainable Agriculture: Synthesis of IssuesPrem Chand, Rajni Jain, Suresh Pal, Sulakshana Rao C and Priyanka Agarwal12. Inventory and Situation Analysis of Land Resources for Sustainable Agriculturein Tamil NaduM Chinnadurai, D Suresh Kumar, S Muraligopal, KR Karunakaran,K Rajendran and KP Asha Priyanka173. Inventory and Situation Analysis of Water Resources for Sustainable Agriculturein Tamil NaduM Chinnadurai, D Suresh Kumar, S Muraligopal, KR Karunakaran,KP Asha Priyanka and K Rajendran334. Existing Status of Groundwater Resources in Punjab – An OverviewJM Singh, Baljinder Kaur, Shruti Chopra, Jasdev Singh, Jatinder Sachdeva andHardeep Kumar615. Economics of Paddy Straw Management Technologies for Wheat Cultivationin PunjabJM Singh, Jasdev Singh, Hardeep Kumar, Sukhpal Singh, Jatinder Sachdeva,Baljinder Kaur, Shruti Chopra and Prem Chand796. Impact of Tank Rehabilitation on Agriculture in Warangal District of TelanganaM Balasubramanian, DR Singh, SS Asha Devi, GK Jha, KS Aditya,Prem Chand, P Anbukkani, Prabhat Kishore and Rajni Jain937. Flood Damage Management in Assam: A Case StudyUdeshna Talukdar, Nibedita Taye, Jayanta Hazarika, Nivedita Deka,Priyanka Agarwal, Prem Chand and Rajni Jain107

8. Impact of Sprinkler Irrigation System on Cropping Pattern in MahendragarhDistrict of HaryanaDP Malik, Dalip Kumar Bishnoi, JK Bhatia, Neeraj Pawar, Ashok Dhillon, NirmalKumar, Sumit and Raj Kumar1179. Rice Fallow in Eastern India: Prospects, Constraints and Possible StrategiesPS Badal, Harshika Choudhary, Priyanka Agarwal and Prem Chand129List of Contributors143

FOREWORDSustainable agriculture envelopes environmental, economic and social dimensions.Harmonization of these dimensions is a major challenge. The sustainability concernsare more prominent in Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), which is facing the challengesof depleting groundwater table, declining soil fertility, degrading air quality, rapidurbanization etc. Addressing the sustainability concerns in the IGP may providea solution to meet rising food demand within changing environment and resourceavailability. Identifying the reasons for resource use inefficiencies is crucial for itsreversal. With poor surface and groundwater irrigation efficiency of 30 per cent and55 per cent, respectively, there is a scope of increasing these efficiencies by adoptingwater-use efficient technologies like micro-irrigation, rainwater harvesting, tankirrigation etc. Similarly, soil fertility can be improved using technology for residuemanagement and carbon sequestration. These efforts can be supplemented with theplanning for resource use and sustainable cropping systems.These issues were discussed in a workshop on 'Resource Use Planning forSustainable Agriculture' and the present compilation is an outcome of the Workshop.The state-specific case studies, highlighting major resource problems and desirableinterventions are presented in this volume. The volume also presents an overview ofchanging status of resources including their depletion or degradation and constraintsin adopting various technological interventions. The technologies for crop residueburning, role of tank irrigation, sustainability of natural resources, management offlood in the north-eastern region, and potential of rice fallow are discussed in details.The volume is useful for describing the role of resource use planning for sustainableagriculture. It will be useful for researchers, policy makers and students and motivatefurther research in this area.New DelhiSK ChaudhariDeputy Director General (NRM)Indian Council of Agricultural Research

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIndian agriculture is constrained with the availability of natural resources likewater. A disparity in resource endowment and access hinders the performance ofagriculture. There is a need to put various resource constraints of agriculture at thecentre and discuss suitable technological and institutional interventions neededfor efficient resource utilization. With this background, a national workshop on‘Resource Use Planning for Sustainable Agriculture’ was organised jointly by ICARNational Institute of Agricultural Economics and Policy Research and Institute ofAgricultural Economics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi from 29th-30th August,2018 at Varanasi. This volume is an outcome of the deliberations at this workshop.We sincerely thank all the paper contributors, panellists and keynote speakers for theirvaluable contributions in the discussion. We are also grateful to all the contributors andcolleagues of NIAP, particularly Priyanka Agarwal and Sulakshana Rao C, for theirefforts to bring out this volume. Thanks are also due to the publication committee fortheir valuable suggestions on the manuscript. Special thanks to Dr. Aruna T Kumarfor her skills in editing the manuscript.March 2020Editors

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONSACRBAgricultural Crop Residue BurningADBAsian Development BankAPIIATPAndhra Pradesh Integrated Irrigation and Agriculture TransformationProjectAPILIPAndhra Pradesh Irrigation and Livelihood Improvement ProjectATMAAgricultural Technology Management AgencyAVARDAssociation of Voluntary Agencies for Rural DevelopmentB&UCLBarren and Uncultivable Waste LandBCMBillion Cubic MeterBHUBanaras Hindu UniversityBNFBiological Nitrogen FixationCFCurrent FallowCGRCompound Growth RateCGWBCentral Ground Water BoardcmCentimetresCO2Carbon dioxideCWCultivable WastelandCWCCentral Water CommissionDAC&FWDepartment of Agriculture Cooperation and Farmers WelfareDAPDiammonium PhosphateDEARDesigned Environment Academy and Research InstituteDESDirectorate of Economics and StatisticsDSRDirect Seeded RiceENVISEnvironmental Information SystemFPOFarmer Producers OrganizationsGCAGross Cropped Area

Acronyms and abbreviationsGISGeographic Information SystemGOIGovernment of IndiaGOPGovernment of PunjabGOTNGovernment of Tamil NaduGPSGlobal Positioning SystemHaHectareHPHorse PowerHYVHigh Yielding VarietyIAMWARMIrrigated Agriculture Modernisation and Water-bodies Restoration andManagementICARIndian Council of Agricultural ResearchINCIDIndian National Committee on Irrigation and DrainageINSEDAIntegrated Sustainable Energy and Ecological Development AssociationIPMIntegrated Pest ManagementISROIndian Space Research OrganisationIWMPIntegrated Watershed Management ProgrammekgKilogramkm2Square KilometreKVKKrishi Vigyan KendrakWhKilo Watt HoursLPNAULand Put to Non-Agricultural Usem haMillion Hectarem ha mMillion Hectare MetresM.cftMillion Cubic FeetmbglMetres Below Ground LevelMGNREGSMahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Gurantee SchemeMIMicro IrrigationmmmillimetreMOPMuriate of PotashMSPMinimum Support PricemtMillion Tonnes

Acronyms and abbreviationsMTCMiscellaneous Tree CropsNAASNational Academy of Agricultural SciencesNADPNational Agricultural Development ProgrammeNBSS&LUPNational Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use PlanningNIANet Irrigated AreaNIAPNational Institute of Agricultural Economics and Policy ResearchNMMINational Mission of Micro-IrrigationNMOOPNational Mission on Oilseeds and Oil PalmNMSANational Mission for Sustainable AgricultureNRRINational Rice Research InstituteNSANet Sown AreaODAPOxalyldiaminopropionic acidOFOther FallowPAUPunjab Agriculture UniversityPFPrecision FarmingPMParticulate MatterPMKSYPradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee YojanaPPPermanent PasturePUPanchayat UnionPWDPublic Works DepartmentqQuintalRCTResource Conservation TechnologiesRKVYRashtriya Krishi Vigyan YojanaROVCReturns Over Variable CostRRRRepair, Renovation and RestorationRSRemote SensingSATSemi-Arid and TropicalSAUState Agriculture UniversitySDGsSustainable Development GoalsSiO2Silicon DioxideSO2Sulfur Dioxide

Acronyms and abbreviationsSRISystem of Rice IntensificationSSISustainable Sugarcane InitiativetTonnesTAWDEVATamil Nadu Watershed Development AgencyTETriennium EndingTFMITask Force on Micro-IrrigationTGATotal Geographical AreaTISTank Information SystemTMCThousand Million Cubic FeetTNAUTamil Nadu Agriculture UniversityTNPCBTamil Nadu Pollution Control BoardTPRTransplanted Puddled RiceTRIADTank Reliant Irrigated Area DevelopmentTWADTamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage BoardUNUnited NationUSEPAUnited States Environmental Protection AgencyVRAVariable Rate ApplicationWDFWatershed Development FundWGDPWestern Ghats Development ProgrammeWRDWater Resources DepartmentWTCWater Technology CentreWUAWater Users AssociationWUEWater Use Efficiency

CHAPTER1Resource Use Planning for Sustainable Agriculture:Synthesis of the IssuesPrem Chand, Rajni Jain, Suresh Pal, Sulakshana Rao C and Priyanka AgarwalIntroductionLand and water are the most essential natural resources for agriculture. Sustainableagriculture techniques enable higher resource efficiency i.e. they help to producegreater agricultural output while efficiently using land, water and energy. However,the burgeoning population in the developing countries and rising consumer demandare putting pressure on these resources. By 2050, India would be the most populatedcountry in the world with a population of 1.7 billion (UN, 2015). By that time, agrifood demand in India is expected to rise by 136 per cent even in the business-asusual policy environment (Hamshere et al., 2014). Food consumption pattern inthe country has evidently experienced significant changes due to the increase in percapita income, changes in lifestyles and urbanization. Transition to livestock productbased diets is witnessed in most of the developed countries and India is likely to seethis shift in the foreseeable future. Demand for low water requiring staple crops hasstagnated while it has increased for water-intensive commodities such as sugarcane,livestock products, etc.The estimate showed that in the next three decades, the global food system willneed 40-50 per cent more water than today, and in the case of India the stresses tothe ecosystem caused by this demand are already being felt (World Bank, 2016).These stresses are also associated with socio-economic and environmental problemssuch as seasonal migration, social conflicts, unemployment, climate change, etc. Forexample, in Gujarat groundwater scarcity caused farmers’ migration to cities as theydidn’t seek alternate adaptation strategies like cropping pattern realignment or use ofmore efficient irrigation technologies (Fishman et al., 2013). Reaching out the limitof cultivable area in the country clearly raises the questions about the future of landuse patterns and their implications to the food security.There are enormous challenges to produce 310 million tonnes of foodgrains by 2030(Kumar et al., 2016) and subsequently almost double the production by 2050. Within

2Natural Resource Use Planning for Sustainable Agriculturethe country, there are wide inter-state and inter-region variabilities in terms of resourceavailability, exploitation as well as use efficiencies. Western and north-western parts ofthe country face the problem of frequent droughts and heavy dependence on irrigationleading to the declining groundwater table, and on the other hand, eastern states areconstrained by floods and moisture stress in the second season. Consequently, itwould be quintessential in the future that farmers opt for right choice of crop andtechnologies to increase water use efficiency leading to improved water managementand higher income. Therefore, the importance of resource use planning at subnational or agro-climatic level is validated for sustainable agriculture in the country.A national workshop-cum-seminar on “Resource Use Planning for SustainableAgriculture” organized jointly by ICAR-NIAP and Institute of Agricultural Sciences,BHU, Varanasi, aimed for discussion related to resource constraints in agriculture,and suitable technological, policy and institutional interventions to conciliate theseissues and constraints. This chapter is an overview of the issues related to resourceuse planning in agriculture. Besides, groundwater and crop residue management inirrigated north-western region, rice fallow and flood management in eastern region,and institutional interventions for management of water resources in SAT region arealso discussed in this volume.Land Use Changes and DegradationIncreasing population and rapid urbanization have put pressure on finite land resourcesin the country. The last five decades witnessed a gradual increase in area under nonagricultural uses (63%), and fallow (both current and permanent fallow) land (42%).The net sown area has remained around 140-143 m ha limiting any possibilities offurther increase. The land use pattern has been changing however, at varying intensityacross the states. For example, Tamil Nadu is witnessing an accelerated land-usechange as compared to other states owning to a faster rate of urbanization. The netsown area (NSA) in the state has declined by 21 per cent during last 45 years period,which is a matter of concern for the agricultural fraternity. The national scenario isdivergent with an almost stagnant NSA. This divergence can also be observed incropping intensity of Tamil Nadu remaining stagnant at 130 per cent, while that atnational level increasing from 118 per cent to 142 per cent during the correspondingperiod.A deeper insight into the cropping pattern in Tamil Nadu indicates a significantshift from cereals to pulses; considerable loss in the area of sorghum, pearl millet,finger millets and minor millets even though their irrigation requirement is veryless. Despite the declining water availability, the area under sugarcane is increasinghighlighting the need to popularise water-saving technologies such as drip irrigation

Resource Use Planning for Sustainable Agriculture: Synthesis of the Issues3and sustainable sugarcane initiatives. Though absolute area under rice has declinedby more than 1.3 m ha from 1970-71 to 2015-16, its proportion has not changed muchwhich has implications for water use in the state.Land degradation is a major concern in Indian agriculture. Although numerous policiesand programmes were implemented in the last two decades to address this problem,the results are insignificant (Mythili and Goedecke, 2016). The remote sensing-basedISRO (2016) estimates showed that the area under various kinds of land degradationhas slightly increased from 94.53 m ha (28.76%) in 2003-05 to 96.40 m ha area(29.32% of total geographical area) in 2011-13 (Table 1). The main reasons for landdegradation in the country are water erosion (10.98% of TGA) followed by vegetationdegradation (8.91% of TGA), and wind erosion (5.55% of TGA). Across the states,land degradation is worst in Jharkhand (69% of TGA) followed by Rajasthan (63%)and Gujarat (52%). A region-wise perusal showed that the central region comprisingMadhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh is the worst affected of all (59% of its total area),followed by north-eastern and southern regions with 48 per cent of the correspondingtotal geographical area (Mythili and Goedecke, 2016).Table 1. Area under different types of land degradation in IndiaType of degradationVegetation degradationWater erosionWind erosionChemical deteriorationPhysical degradation (water logging, mining andindustrial waste)Others (frost, mass movement, barren/ rocky, settlementetc.)Total area under desertification 9214.29201082.5712.4024.681.077.688.38- 94.53@#147.75 120.72(in m ha)2011-13 29.3036.1018.233.670.658.4596.40Source: ISRO (2016); NBSS&LUP (2004) cited in ICAR (2010); ICAR (2010). @#Management of Water ResourcesHousing 18 per cent of the world population, India has only 4 per cent of world waterresources, of which 80 per cent is used in agriculture. In addition, the country facesenormous challenges due to the negative impact of climate change, low water useefficiency and unsustainable water pricing policies in the country. Out of the 3,880billion cubic meters (BCM) of annual precipitation, only 2,000 BCM is stored inIndia’s surface and groundwater bodies (CWC, 2018), out of which hardly 20 per cent

4Natural Resource Use Planning for Sustainable Agricultureis being used. Inter-regional inequalities in water distribution and use inefficienciesare persistent. For example, the north-western part of the country is overexploited,whereas the eastern and north-eastern part is underutilized in terms of water resources(CGWB, 2017). Notable anarchy is the pertinent dependence on the groundwaterresources despite surface irrigation potential created resulting in steep decline in thegroundwater level. Irrigation by surface sources has declined from more than halfupto 1980’s to around one-fourth in the last decade (DES, 2017).Out of 6,584 assessment units, 1/5th are either over-exploited or critical in the country.This situation demands developing agriculture management strategies emphasizingthe realignment of cropping patterns towards specialization or diversification,adoption of water-saving technologies and relook towards water pricing policies.Increasing water use efficiency in irrigated agricultureWater is a critical input in agriculture and it has greater interaction with other inputsaffecting the yields. Improved seeds and fertilizers cannot achieve their full potentialif the crop is not optimally watered. Similarly, water is important for livestock and infact, fisheries are directly dependent on water resources. However, in all the disciplines,there exists a tremendous opportunity for water savings. Increasing demand forirrigation, inefficient use, shift in cropping pattern, extensive subsidies and limitedregulation are increasing stress on freshwater, particularly on groundwater resourcesin the country, and thereby threatening the sustainability of intensive agriculturalsystems. Over-extraction of groundwater is depleting aquifers across the country, andwater-table decline is pervasive. The number of groundwater over-exploited blockshas increased from 4 per cent in 1995 to 16 per cent in 2013 (CGWB, 2017; GOI,2007).Irrigated north-western and western states are the most affected in terms ofgroundwater depletion. The stage of groundwater development in Punjab (149%),Rajasthan (140%) and Haryana (135%) has reached an unsustainable level. Nearlyall districts in Punjab, Rajasthan and Haryana are under unsafe category forcingthe farmers to replace their centrifugal tube-wells with submersible tube-wells. Theextensive rice-wheat system in traditional belts of Punjab and Haryana has also led tosalinity problem, leading to extensive socio-economic stress.The prevailing water use efficiencies are very low at 30 per cent and 55 per centin surface and groundwater, respectively, as against the achievable efficiencies of60 per cent and 75 per cent (CWC, 2014). In spite of having the world’s largestarea under irrigation, the low percentage of irrigation ( 50%) is mainly due to thepredominant use of flood method of irrigation. Being the largest consumer of water,

Resource Use Planning for Sustainable Agriculture: Synthesis of the Issues5agriculture has tremendous potential for water-saving by increasing efficiency ofirrigation water use. To maintain agricultural productivity while reducing pressureon water, a large increase in its use efficiency (the economic value produced per unitof the resource) is required. Studies indicated that around 50 per cent of the increasein demand for water by the year 2025 can be met by increasing irrigation efficiency(Seckler et al., 1998). This can be brought using proven, water-efficient, resourceconservation technologies such as precision farming, improved method of irrigation,choice of crops/varieties, etc. For example, improved methods of irrigation like skipfurrow irrigation, irrigation at critical crop growth stages, trash mulching and ringpit planting in sugarcane enhance irrigation water use efficiency by 1.5 to 2.5 times(Srivastava et al., 2011).Use of micro-irrigationA major stepping stone to increase the water use efficiency is the introduction ofmicro-irrigation (MI) which includes mainly drip and sprinkler irrigation methods.Under MI, water is supplied at a required interval and quantity using pipe network,emitters, and nozzles and therefore the conveyance and distribution losses are minimal,resulting in higher water use efficiency (Narayanamoorthy, 2009). The benefits ofmicro-irrigation in terms of water-saving are substantial. Estimates showed that wateruse efficiency increases up to 70 per cent in sprinkler irrigation and up to 90 per centin drip irrigation (GOI, 2014). This improved efficiency reduces the over-exploitationof groundwater, which partly occurs due to inefficient surface methods of irrigation.Apart from the water-saving and productivity enhancement, MI also reduces energyuse, controls weed, checks soil erosion, increases fertilizer use efficiency, improvesthe quality of products and reduces cost of cultivation, particularly labour cost inirrigation (GOI, 2014).The area under undulating and rolling topography, sand dunes and hilly areas whereflood irrigation is not possible can be covered through micro-irrigation. Estimatesshowed that farmers could irrigate up to 20 per cent additional area with the samevolume of water using micro-irrigation (GOI, 2014). The micro-irrigation also hasa significant bearing on changes in cropping patterns towards high value and widerspaced crops. The potential of micro-irrigation is very high in the country. Differentstudies have estimated a spatial potential of 36-69 m ha under sprinkler and 27 millionha under drip (Table 2). A study sponsored by Government of India considering13 states, namely Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka,Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim and Uttarakhand,showed that the potential of micro-irrigation is around 28-65 m ha under drip and37 m ha under sprinkler irrigation (GOI, 2014). Despite the innumerable benefits

6Natural Resource Use Planning for Sustainable Agricultureand huge potential, micro-irrigation has been limited in coverage and concentratedin a few states. Out of total 9.21 m ha area under micro-irrigation (4.24 m ha underdrip and 4.97 m ha under sprinkler) in the country, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, AndhraPradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka and Haryana occupy more than 80 per cent area (GoI,2018).Table 2. Potential area for drip and sprinkler irrigation in e and condimentsFlowers, medicinal andaromatic plantsSugarcaneFruitsCoconut, plantation crops,oil palmTotalIndian National Committee onIrrigation and Drainage (INCID)Sprinkler27.*1.2—(in m ha)Task Force on MicroIrrigation (TFMI)Drip Sprinkler 04.303.903.008.607.806.0042.527.0069.5096.50Note : * include fruits and vegetablesSource: Adopted from Narayanamoorthy (2009).Conservation agricultureThe dominant rice-wheat cropping system in north-western India plays an importantrole in the food security of the country. However, it has created a number of secondgeneration externalities such as depleting groundwater and quality of water, decliningsoil fertility, increasing soil salinity, environmental degradation, etc. Even thougha high water-consuming crop, the Indian food bowl without paddy seems almostimpossible. Hence, the alternative is to cultivate rice and wheat with greater efficiencyin resource use with minimal environmental externalities. Various technologies havebeen developed to conserve natural resources and to address the negative externalitiesof input-intensive cultivation such as water conservation, improving soil fertility,reducing use of chemicals in agriculture, crop residue management and reducinggreenhouse gas emission. Laser land levelling, permanently raised bed planting,

Resource Use Planning for Sustainable Agriculture: Synthesis of the Issues7happy seeder, alternate wetting and drying, the system of rice intensification, directseeded rice (DSR), zero tillage, etc. are a few examples for conservation agriculturetechnologies. The extent of water-saving, changes in yield, energy-saving, andchanges in return over conventional technologies estimated by different studies arepresented in Table 3.Laser land levelling: In irrigated north-western India, rice fields are watered in largesize plots mainly using surface application methods. Flood irrigation in unlevelledfield results in deep percolation of water lowering the application efficiency up to25 per cent. Laser-assisted precision land levelling saves irrigation water, nutrients,and agrochemicals besides enhancing environmental quality and crop yield. Thestudies have revealed that laser land levelling has the potential of water-saving andyield enhancement leading to significant economic benefits. (Sidhu et al., 2010).Laser levelling in rice bought down the water use by 36.19 cm along with the yieldimprovement of 0.78 tonne/ha. It saves electricity to the tune of 610/ha and netreturns increase by more than 8,200/ha if the imputed value of electricityis includedwhich though free for farmers in the state, yet this saved electricity can be madeavailable for other purposes.Crop residue management: Agricultural crop residue burning (ACRB), a majorissue due to human and environmental health is also associated with economic losses.Burning of crop residue in paddy to a greater extent and wheat to a lesser extent is acommon practice in the states like Punjab, which worsens air pollution and also leadsto loss of organic matter, nutrients and soil biota. Chakrabarti et al. (2019) found thatthe economic cost of exposure to air pollution from crop residual burning stands atnearly 20 trillion annually for the three north Indian states of Punjab, Haryana andDelhi. And in addition to affecting human health, ACRB deteriorates soil fertility,releases greenhouse gases that add to global warming and loss of biodiversity.The mechanized harvesting of paddy, short window between paddy harvestingand wheat sowing, and labour shortage make the straw burning cost-effective forfarmers. The potential solutions are the adoption of short duration varieties, ex-situmanagement and energy generation, in-situ straw management techniques such asincorporation of residue using Happy seeder, etc. The Happy seeder is a tractorpowered machine that cuts and lifts rice straw, incorporates into soil, and depositsthe straw over the sown area as a mulch (Sidhu et al., 2007). It combines the stubblemulching and seed-fertiliser drilling operations into one machine in a single pass. Theempirical evidence shows that Happy seeder helps in saving water up to 8-12 cm/haand power by 50-168 kWh/ha (Table 3). Pre-sowing irrigation requiring the highestamount of water can be completely escaped.

Direct SeededRiceTensiometerSystem of 2009-10Laser levellingin ricePermanentraised bed inwheatHappy seeder inwheatExtentof ionin powersubsidy*( /ha)5-10%0.841.07-0.19-0.78Improvementin crop ease inreturns ( /ha)2,16396026,73627,660-2,5548,207Total benefit( /ha) (powersubsidy reduction increase inreturns)Source:a Sidhu et al. (2010); b Adusumilli and Laxmi (2011); c Ravichandran et al. (2015); dTripathi et al. (2014); eSingh et al. (2008).Note: * Assumed cost of electricity @ 2.68 in Punjab and 4 in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.HaryanadbAPTNcPunjabaRegionTable 3. Potential of water conservation technologies in saving water, electricity and cost8Natural Resource Use Planning for Sustainable Agriculture

Resource Use Planning for Sustainable Agriculture: Synthesis of the Issues9Retention of rice stubble adds nutrients to the soil and suppresses the establishmentof weeds. The estimate showed that herbicide cost reduces by 50 per cent whilenutrients are saved by 10 per cent after 5 years of incorporation of straw (Sidhuet al., 2007). Additionally, direct seeding of wheat using Happy seeder reducestractor timing resulting in saving of fuel to the extent of 45 litres/ha. Besides havingeconomic benefit, saving of fuel will reduce carbon footprints. Assuming that onegallon of diesel emits 10.21 kg of CO2 (USEPA, 2014), it has potential to reducethe carbon emission by 121.5 kg of CO2/ha. There is a mix of opinion regarding theyield increase of wheat under Happy seeder technology. Sidhu et al. (2010) found nosignificant difference in yield under Happy seeder, while Sidhu et al. (2007) observed5-10 per cent higher yield as compared to conventional practices. However, farmersfaced constraints such as problem of rodents, problem in hiring of Happy seederon rent due to its lower availability and high HP tractors required for operating it.Farmers’ perspective on managing paddy straw in a judicious and environmentfriendly manner indicated the need for compensation of paddy residue managementcost.System of rice intensification (SRI): The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

North Eastern Zone Between 8 5' & 13 2' North latitude and 76 15' & 80 22' East longitude Red Sandy Loam, Clay Loam, Saline Coastal Alluvium 2. Kanchipuram 3. Cuddalore 4. Villupuram 5. Thiruvannamalai 6. Vellore 7. Krishnagiri North Western Zone Between 11 00' & 12 55' North latitude and 77 28' & 78 50' East longitude Non Calcareous Red,