Oracle Database Backup And Recovery User's Guide


[1]Oracle DatabaseBackup and Recovery User's Guide11g Release 2 (11.2)E10642-08May 2015A guide to backup and recovery of Oracle databases,including RMAN backup and recovery, RMAN data transfer,Oracle Flashback Technology, and user-managed backup andrecovery

Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2)E10642-08Copyright 2003, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Primary Author: Lance AshdownContributors: Katherine Weill, Tammy Bednar, Anand Beldalker, Timothy Chien, Mark Dilman, RaymondGuzman, Stephan Haisley, Wei Hu, Alex Hwang, Ashok Joshi, Vasudha Krishnaswamy, J. William LeeValarie Moore, Muthu Olagappan, Vsevolod Panteleenko, Francisco Sanchez, Vinay Srihari, MargaretSusairaj, Mike Stewart, Steven Wertheimer, Wanli Yang, Rob ZijlstraThis software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions onuse and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in yourlicense agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify, license,transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by any means. Reverseengineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for interoperability, isprohibited.The information contained herein is subject to change without notice and is not warranted to be error-free. Ifyou find any errors, please report them to us in writing.If this is software or related documentation that is delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing iton behalf of the U.S. Government, then the following notice is applicable:U.S. GOVERNMENT END USERS: Oracle programs, including any operating system, integrated software,any programs installed on the hardware, and/or documentation, delivered to U.S. Government end usersare "commercial computer software" pursuant to the applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation andagency-specific supplemental regulations. As such, use, duplication, disclosure, modification, andadaptation of the programs, including any operating system, integrated software, any programs installed onthe hardware, and/or documentation, shall be subject to license terms and license restrictions applicable tothe programs. No other rights are granted to the U.S. Government.This software or hardware is developed for general use in a variety of information managementapplications. It is not developed or intended for use in any inherently dangerous applications, includingapplications that may create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software or hardware in dangerousapplications, then you shall be responsible to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy, and othermeasures to ensure its safe use. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates disclaim any liability for any damagescaused by use of this software or hardware in dangerous applications.Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks oftheir respective owners.Intel and Intel Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. All SPARC trademarksare used under license and are trademarks or registered trademarks of SPARC International, Inc. AMD,Opteron, the AMD logo, and the AMD Opteron logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of AdvancedMicro Devices. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group.This software or hardware and documentation may provide access to or information about content,products, and services from third parties. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates are not responsible for andexpressly disclaim all warranties of any kind with respect to third-party content, products, and servicesunless otherwise set forth in an applicable agreement between you and Oracle. Oracle Corporation and itsaffiliates will not be responsible for any loss, costs, or damages incurred due to your access to or use ofthird-party content, products, or services, except as set forth in an applicable agreement between you andOracle.

ContentsPreface . xixWhat's New in Backup and Recovery? . xxiPart I1Overview of Backup and RecoveryIntroduction to Backup and RecoveryPurpose of Backup and Recovery. 1-1Data Protection . 1-2Data Preservation . 1-3Data Transfer . 1-3Oracle Backup and Recovery Solutions. 1-3Oracle Flashback Technology. 1-5Logical Flashback Features . 1-5Flashback Database. 1-7Data Recovery Advisor. 1-7Backup and Recovery Documentation Roadmap . 1-8Recovery Manager Documentation Roadmap. 1-10User-Managed Backup and Recovery Documentation Roadmap . 1-102Getting Started with RMANOverview of the RMAN Environment . 2-1Starting RMAN and Connecting to a Database . 2-2Showing the Default RMAN Configuration . 2-3Backing Up a Database. 2-4Backing Up a Database in ARCHIVELOG Mode. 2-4Backing Up a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode . 2-5Typical Backup Options . 2-5Making Incremental Backups. 2-6Validating Database Files and Backups . 2-7Scripting RMAN Operations . 2-8Reporting on RMAN Operations . 2-9Listing Backups . 2-9Reporting on Database Files and Backups . 2-10Maintaining RMAN Backups . 2-10iii

Cross-checking Backups.Deleting Obsolete Backups .Diagnosing and Repairing Failures with Data Recovery Advisor .Listing Failures and Determining Repair Options .Repairing Failures .Rewinding a Database with Flashback Database.Restoring and Recovering Database Files .Preparing to Restore and Recover Database Files.Recovering the Whole Database .Recovering Tablespaces .Recovering Individual Data Blocks .Part ting and Configuring RMAN and Flashback Database3 Recovery Manager ArchitectureAbout the RMAN Environment .RMAN Command-Line Client.RMAN Channels .Channels and Devices .Automatic and Manual Channels.RMAN Repository.Media Management .RMAN Interaction with a Media Manager .Oracle Secure Backup .Backup Solutions Program .Fast Recovery Area .RMAN in a Data Guard Environment .RMAN Configuration in a Data Guard Environment .RMAN File Management in a Data Guard Environment ng and Interacting with the RMAN ClientStarting and Exiting RMAN. 4-1Specifying the Location of RMAN Output . 4-2Setting Globalization Support Environment Variables for RMAN . 4-2Entering RMAN Commands. 4-2Entering RMAN Commands at the RMAN Prompt. 4-3Using Command Files with RMAN . 4-3Entering Comments in RMAN Command Files. 4-4Using Substitution Variables in Command Files . 4-4Checking RMAN Syntax . 4-5Making Database Connections with RMAN. 4-7About RMAN Database Connections . 4-7Making RMAN Database Connections from the Operating System Command Line . 4-9Making Database Connections from the RMAN Prompt . 4-10Connecting RMAN to an Auxiliary Database . 4-11Making RMAN Database Connections Within Command Files . 4-11iv

Diagnosing RMAN Connection Problems .Using the RMAN Pipe Interface .Executing Multiple RMAN Commands in Succession Through a Pipe: Example.Executing RMAN Commands in a Single Job Through a Pipe: Example.54-124-124-134-14Configuring the RMAN EnvironmentConfiguring the Environment for RMAN Backups . 5-1Showing and Clearing Persistent RMAN Configurations . 5-2Configuring the Default Device for Backups: Disk or SBT . 5-3Configuring the Default Type for Backups: Backup Sets or Copies. 5-4Configuring Channels . 5-4Configuring Control File and Server Parameter File Autobackups . 5-7Configuring RMAN to Make Backups to a Media Manager. 5-9Prerequisites for Using a Media Manager with RMAN . 5-9Determining the Location of the Media Management Library . 5-9Configuring Media Management Software for RMAN Backups. 5-10Testing Whether the Media Manager Library Is Integrated Correctly . 5-11Configuring SBT Channels for Use with a Media Manager . 5-13Configuring the Fast Recovery Area. 5-14Overview of the Fast Recovery Area. 5-14Enabling the Fast Recovery Area . 5-16Disabling the Fast Recovery Area. 5-20Configuring Locations for Control Files and Redo Logs . 5-20Configuring RMAN File Creation in the Fast Recovery Area. 5-21Configuring the Backup Retention Policy . 5-22Configuring a Redundancy-Based Retention Policy . 5-22Configuring a Recovery Window-Based Retention Policy . 5-23Disabling the Retention Policy . 5-23Backup Optimization and the CONFIGURE command. 5-24Overview of Backup Optimization. 5-24Effect of Retention Policies on Backup Optimization for SBT Backups . 5-25Configuring Backup Optimization . 5-26Configuring an Archived Redo Log Deletion Policy . 5-27About Archived Redo Log Deletion Policies . 5-27Enabling an Archived Redo Log Deletion Policy. 5-28Configuring RMAN in a Data Guard Environment. 5-296Configuring the RMAN Environment: Advanced TopicsConfiguring Advanced Channel Options .About Channel Control Options.Configuring Specific Channel Parameters .Configuring Advanced Backup Options .Configuring the Maximum Size of Backup Sets .Configuring the Maximum Size of Backup Pieces .Configuring Backup Duplexing.Configuring Tablespaces for Exclusion from Whole Database Backups .6-16-16-26-36-46-46-56-5v

Configuring Compression Options . 6-6Configuring Backup Encryption . 6-7Configuring Auxiliary Instance Data File Names . 6-11Configuring the Snapshot Control File Location. 6-11Viewing the Configured Location of the Snapshot Control File. 6-12Setting the Location of the Snapshot Control File . 6-12Configuring RMAN for Use with a Shared Server. 6-12Enabling Lost Write Detection . 6-147 Using Flashback Database and Restore PointsUnderstanding Flashback Database, Restore Points and Guaranteed Restore Points . 7-1Flashback Database. 7-2Flashback Database Window . 7-2Limitations of Flashback Database . 7-3Normal Restore Points. 7-4Guaranteed Restore Points . 7-4Logging for Flashback Database and Guaranteed Restore Points . 7-5Guaranteed Restore Points and Fast Recovery Area Space Usage . 7-5Logging for Guaranteed Restore Points with Flashback Logging Disabled . 7-6Logging for Flashback Database with Guaranteed Restore Points Defined . 7-7Prerequisites for Flashback Database and Guaranteed Restore Points . 7-7Using Normal and Guaranteed Restore Points . 7-8Creating Normal and Guaranteed Restore Points . 7-8Listing Restore Points . 7-8Dropping Restore Points . 7-9Using Flashback Database. 7-10Enabling Flashback Database . 7-10Disabling Flashback Database Logging . 7-10Configuring the Environment for Optimal Flashback Database Performance. 7-11Monitoring the Effect of Flashback Database on Performance . 7-11Flashback Writer (RVWR) Behavior with I/O Errors . 7-12Part III8Backing Up and Archiving DataRMAN Backup ConceptsConsistent and Inconsistent RMAN Backups .Consistent Backups .Inconsistent Backups .Online Backups and Backup Mode .Backup Sets.Backup Sets and Backup Pieces .Block Compression for Backup Sets .Binary Compression for Backup Sets .Backup Undo .Encryption for Backup Sets.Filenames for Backup Pieces .vi8-18-18-28-28-38-38-48-48-58-58-5

Number and Size of Backup Pieces . 8-6Number and Size of Backup Sets . 8-6Multiplexed Backup Sets. 8-7Proxy Copies . 8-8Image Copies. 8-9RMAN-Created Image Copies . 8-9User-Managed Image Copies . 8-10Multiple Copies of RMAN Backups . 8-10Duplexed Backup Sets . 8-11Backups of Backups . 8-11Control File and Server Parameter File Autobackups. 8-12When RMAN Performs Control File Autobackups . 8-12How RMAN Performs Control File Autobackups . 8-13Incremental Backups . 8-13Multilevel Incremental Backups . 8-14Block Change Tracking . 8-16Incremental Backup Algorithm. 8-16Recovery with Incremental Backups. 8-17Backup Retention Policies. 8-17Recovery Window. 8-18Backup Redundancy. 8-20Batch Deletes of Obsolete Backups. 8-20Backup Retention Policy and Fast Recovery Area Deletion Rules . 8-219Backing Up the DatabaseOverview of RMAN Backups . 9-1Purpose of RMAN Backups. 9-1Basic Concepts of RMAN Backups. 9-1Specifying Backup Output Options . 9-2Specifying the Device Type for an RMAN Backup. 9-2Specifying Backup Set or Copy for an RMAN Backup to Disk. 9-3Specifying a Format for RMAN Backups . 9-3Specifying Tags for an RMAN Backup . 9-4Making Compressed Backups. 9-6Backing Up Database Files with RMAN . 9-6Backing Up a Whole Database with RMAN . 9-7Backing Up Tablespaces and Datafiles with RMAN . 9-7Backing Up Control Files with RMAN . 9-8Backing Up Server Parameter Files with RMAN . 9-9Backing Up a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode . 9-10Backing Up Archived Redo Logs with RMAN. 9-10About Backups of Archived Redo Logs. 9-10Backing Up Archived Redo Log Files . 9-12Backing Up Only Archived Redo Logs That Need Backups . 9-12Deleting Archived Redo Logs After Backups . 9-13Making and Updating Incremental Backups. 9-14Purpose of Incremental Backups . 9-14vii

Planning an Incremental Backup Strategy .Making Incremental Backups.

Backup and Recovery User's Guide 11g Release 2 (11.2) E10642-08 May 2015 A guide to backup and recovery of Oracle databases, including RMAN backup and recovery, RMAN data transfer, Oracle Flashback Technology, and user-managed backup and recovery.