DATA AND COMPUTERCOMMUNICATIONSEighth EditionWilliam StallingsUpper Saddle River, N e w Jersey 07458

MiftißiiPafttfk sifff- — — — »» .«* - --- -"- *"* CONTENTSWeb Site for Data and Computer CommunicationsPrefaceivxvChapter's and Instructor's GuideOutline of the Book 2Roadmap 3Internet and Web ResourcesStandards 6PART O N EChapter 2OVERVIEW159Data Communications, Data Networking, and the InternetData Communications and Networking for Today's EnterpriseA Communications Model 16Data Communications 19Networks 22The Internet 25An Example Configuration 291012Protocol Architecture, TCP/IP, and Internet-Based Applications322.1The Need for a Protocol Architecture 332.2The T C P / I P Protocol Architecture 342.3The OSI Model 422.4Standardization within a Protocol Architecture 442.5Traditional Internet-Based Applications 482.6Multimedia 482.7Recommended Reading and Web Sites 532.8Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 54Appendix 2A The Trivial File Transfer Protocol 57PART T W OChapter 3DATA C O M M U N I C A T I O N SData Transmission62653.1Concepts and Terminology 673.2Analog and Digital Data Transmission 783.3Transmission Impairments 863.4Channel Capacity 913.5Recommended Reading and Web Site 963.6Key Terms, Review Questions, and ProblemsAppendix 3A Decibels and Signal Strength 99Chapter Media96102Guided Transmission MediaWireless Transmission 117Wireless Propagation 125104Vll

VÜiCONTENTS4.44.54.6Chapter Transmission 129Recommended Reading and Web Sites 133Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 134Signal Encoding Techniques138Digital Data, Digital Signals 141Digital Data, Analog Signals 151Analog Data, Digital Signals 162Analog Data, Analog Signals 168Recommended Reading 175Key Terms, Review Questions, and ProblemsChapter 6Digital Data Communication Techniques6. and Synchronous TransmissionTypes of Errors 186Error Detection 186Error Correction 196Line Configurations 201Recommended Reading 203Key Terms, Review Questions, and ProblemsChapter 7Data Link Control Protocols1751801822042077.1Flow Control 2097.2Error Control 2167.3High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) 2227.4Recommended Reading 2287.5Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 229Appendix 7A Performance Issues 232Chapter on Multiplexing 242Synchronous Time-Division Multiplexing 248Statistical Time-Division Multiplexing 258Asymmetrie Digital Subscriber Line 265xDSL 268Recommended Reading and Web Sites 269Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 270Spread Spectrum 274The Concept of Spread Spectrum 276Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum 277Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum 282Code-Division Multiple Access 287Recommended Reading and Web Site 290Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems291

CONTENTSPART T H R E EW I D E AREA NETWORKS295Chapter 10 Circuit Switching and Packet hed Communications Networks 299Circuit Switching Networks 301Circuit Switching Concepts 304Softswitch Architecture 307Packet-Switching Principles 309X.25 317Frame Relay 319Recommended Reading and Web Sites 324Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 325Chapter 11 Asynchronous Transfer Mode11.111.211.311.411.511.611.7328Protocol Architecture 329ATM Logical Connections 331ATM Cells 335Transmission of ATM Cells 340ATM Service Categories 345Recommended Reading and Web Sites 348Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 349Chapter 12 Routing in Switched Networks12.112.212.312.412.5351Routing in Packet-Switching Networks 352Examples: Routing in ARPANET 362Least-Cost Algorithms 367Recommended Reading 372Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 373Chapter 13 Congestion Control in Data ects of Congestion 379Congestion Control 383Traffic Management 386Congestion Control in Packet-Switching NetworksFrame Relay Congestion Control 388ATM Traffic Management 394ATM-GFRTraffic Management 406Recommended Reading 409Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 410Chapter 14 Cellular Wireless Networks14.114.214.314.414.514.6297413Principles of Cellular Networks 415First Generation Analog 427Second Generation CDMA 429Third Generation Systems 437Recommended Reading and Web Sites 440Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 441387IX

XCONTENTSPART F O U RLOCAL A R E A N E T W O R K SChapter 15 Local Area Network nd 448Topologies and Transmission Media 451LAN Protocol Architecture 457Bridges 465Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switches 473Recommended Reading and Web Site 478Key Terms, Review Questions, and ProblemsChapter 16 High-Speed LANs47948216.1The Emergence of High-Speed LANs 48316.2Ethernet 48516.3Fibre Channel 50016.4Recommended Reading and Web Sites 50416.5Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 506Appendix 16A Digital Signal Encoding for LANs 508Appendix 16B Performance Issues 514Appendix 16C Scrambling 518Chapter 17 Wireless LANs17.117.217.317.417.517.617.717.8522Overview 523Wireless LAN Technology 528IEEE 802.11 Architecture and Services 531IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control 535IEEE 802.1 lPhysical Layer 543IEEE 802.11 Security Considerations 549Recommended Reading and Web Sites 550Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 551PART FIVEINTERNET A N D TRANSPORT PROTOCOLSChapter 18 Internetwork Protocols18.118.218.318.418.518.618.718.8Basic Protocol Functions 558Principles of Internetworking 566Internet Protocol Operation 569Internet Protocol 576IPv6 586Virtual Private Networks and IP Security 596Recommended Reading and Web Sites 599Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 600Chapter 19 Internetwork Operation19.119.219.319.4556603Multicasting 605Routing Protocols 614Integrated Services ArchitectureDifferentiated Services 636625554

CONTENTS19.519.619.719.8Service Level Agreements 645IP Performance Metrics 646Recommended Reading and Web Sites 649Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 651Chapter 20 Transport Protocols20.120.220.320.420.520.6PART SIXConnection-Oriented Transport Protocol MechanismsT C P 674T C P Congestion Control 683U D P 693Recommended Reading and Web Sites 695Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 695I N T E R N E T APPLICATIONSChapter 21 Network 699701Security Requirements and Attacks 703Confidentiality with Conventional Encryption 705Message Authentication and Hash Functions 713Public-Key Encryption and Digital Signatures 720Secure Socket Layer and Transport Layer Security 727IPv4 and IPv6 Security 732Wi-Fi Protected Access 737Recommended Reading and Web Sites 739Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 740Chapter 22 Internet Applications—Electronic Mail and Network Management22.122.222.322.4743Electronic Mail: SMTP and MIME 745Network Management: SNMP 760Recommended Reading and Web Sites 770Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 771Chapter 23 Internet Applications—Internet Directory Service and World Wide Web23.123.223.323.4Internet Directory Service: DNS 774Web Access: H T T P 784Recommended Reading and Web Sites 795Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 796Chapter 24 Internet 99Audio andVideo Compression 800Real-Time Traffic 808Voice Over IP and Multimedia Support—SIP 811Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) 820Recommended Reading and Web Sites 831Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 832

XÜCONTENTSAPPENDICESAppendix AA.lA.2A.3Fourier Analysis835Fourier Series Representation of Periodic Signals 836Fourier Transform Representation of Aperiodic Signals 837Recommended Reading 840Appendix BB.lB.2B.3B.4B.5B.6B.7B.8B.9Projects for Teaching Data and Computer CommunicationsPractical Exercises 842Sockets Projects 843Ethereal Projects 843Simulation and Modeling Projects 844Performance Modeling 844Research Projects 845Reading/Report Assignments 845Writing Assignments 845Discussion Topics 846ReferencesIndex835847858ONLINE APPENDICESWilliamStallings. c o m / D C CAppendix CC.lC.2C.3C.4C.5C.6C.7Sockets: A Programmer's IntroductionVersions of SocketsSockets, Socket Descriptors, Ports, and ConnectionsThe Client/Server Model of CommunicationSockets ElementsStream and Datagram SocketsRun-Time Program ControlRemote Execution of a Windows Console ApplicationAppendix DD.lD.2D.3Standards OrganizationsThe Importance of StandardsStandards and RegulationStandards-Setting OrganizationsAppendix EThe International Reference AlphabetAppendix FProof o f the Sampling TheoremAppendix GPhysical-Layer InterfacingG.lG.2Appendix HH.lH.2V.24/EIA-232-FISDN Physical InterfaceThe OSI ModelThe ModelThe OSI Layers841

CONTENTSAppendix IQueuing Effects1.11.2Queuing ModelsQueuing ResultsAppendix JOrthogonality, Correlation, and AutocorrelationJ.lJ.2Correlation and AutocorrelationOrthogonal CodesAppendix KK.lK.2The T C P / I P ChecksumOnes-Complement AdditionUse in T C P and IPAppendix LT C P / I P ExampleAppendix MM.lM.2M.3Appendix NGlossaryUniform Resource Locators (URLs) and Uniform ResourceIdentifiers (URIs)Uniform Resource LocatorUniform Resource IdentifierTo Learn MoreAugmented Backus-Naur FormXÜi

Chapter 1 Data Communications, Data Networking, and the Internet 10 1.1 Data Communications and Networking for Today's Enterprise 12 1.2 A Communications Model 16 1.3 Data Communications 19 1.4 Networks 22 1.5 The Internet 25 1.6 An Example Configuration 29 Chapter 2 Protocol Architecture, TCP/IP, and Internet-Based Applications 32