K A N S A S GARDEN GUIDE - KSRE Bookstore - Home


KANSASGARDENGUIDEKansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service

KANSASGARDENGUIDECharles W. MarrHorticulturist, Vegetable CropsTed CareyHorticulturist, Vegetable CropsRaymond CloydEntomologistMegan KennellyPlant Pathologist1


Contents5Introduction6Planning a Garden666778SoilSelecting What to GrowOptimizing Garden SpaceMake a SketchObtaining Seeds and PlantsTools and Supplies9Composting991011111112Chemistry of CompostGetting StartedMaking the Compost PileQuick CompostingGrass ClippingsUsing CompostCautions in Using Compost13Soil Improvement13131414141416Adding Organic MatterGetting a Soil TestTaking a Soil SampleControlling Soil pHFertilizing the GardenFertilizer TypesCalculating the Amount of FertilizerNeededGetting the Most From Your FertilizerSome Useful MeasuresApplying Fertilizers191920321Seeding and Planting2121222223When To PlantPreparing the SeedbedSeedsProducing TransplantsTransplanting24As the Garden Grows24242424ThinningWeeding and CultivatingPruningStaking and Tying25Watering the Garden252527272929Watering EfficientlyPrinciples of Plant Water UseSuggestions for Applying WaterMethods of Applying WaterMulchingTen Ways to Improve Garden Water Use30Fall Gardens303131313132What To PlantWhen To PlantFertilizing and Soil PreparationEstablishing Vegetables in Summer HeatWateringFrosts and Freezes

33Insect and DiseaseControl3335363637Checklist of Good Gardening PracticesAlternatives in Pest ControlIntegrated Pest ManagementPesticidesAlternative Pesticides and ControlMethods for Specific Crops40Container Gardening404041414142Soil MixesContainersFertilizerWateringCulture and CareWhat to Grow43Season Extension434344444545464748Crop and Cultivar SelectionMaximize YieldGarden Site SelectionRaised BedsMulchesOther Forms of ProtectionLow TunnelsHigh TunnelsProvide 66767686969CauliflowerChinese Lettuce and Other Leafy GreensMuskmelonsMustardOkraOnions and Onion adishesRhubarbSalsifySpinachSquashSweet CornSweet PotatoTomatoesTurnip and RutabagaWatermelon49Harvesting and Storing71Herbs4949494950Storage ConditionsSelect the BestCheck Storage Areas RegularlyStoring VegetablesRecommended Vegetable StorageConditions51Vegetable Crops51525253535454AsparagusBeansBeet/Swiss ChardBroccoliBrussels Getting StartedHarvestingDryingStorageHerbs in ContainersAnnual HerbsPerennial Herbs75Vegetable CropInformation76Vegetable GardenCalendar4

IntroductionVegetables are an important part of our diet, and millionsof Americans are home gardeners. In Kansas, homegardeners produce 15– 20 million worth of vegetablesevery year.Gardening is an excellent 4-H or youth project. It can provide a source of income as well asan outlet for energy.The garden is also an excellent laboratoryfor experimenting with plants. Everyone canlearn from simple experiments in the world ofplant science.Successful gardens are the result of carefulplanning, watchful care, and good management. With a few simple tools, a little land,and a desire to nurture plant growth, anyonecan become a home gardener. This gardenguide will assist in achieving a successfulhome garden.A well-planned and properly tended gardencan provide food for a family throughout theyear. Most home gardeners agree that homegrown produce has the ultimate in vegetableflavor. Surplus vegetables can be frozen,canned, or stored, making the home gardenenjoyable year-round. These vegetables notonly provide food budget savings but alsomake a valuable contribution to nutrition.The food from a vegetable garden is onlyone of the many benefits of home gardening.The relaxation and enjoyment derived fromgardening is well known to all home gardeners. A garden allows even the youngest familymember to help in gathering food.5

Planning a GardenPlanning a GardenLocate the garden in an area that will not interfere withthe home landscape. A sunny, level area away fromlarge trees is preferable because tree roots compete forsoil nutrients and water. A source of water should beaccessible for periods when irrigation is necessary.In many Kansas locations, protection fromwind is desirable. Take advantage of fences,small shrubs, or buildings that provide awindbreak.experiment with unfamiliar vegetables, butplan to be able to use most of the vegetablesyou produce.Most home gardeners have too much produce maturing at the same time. This is desirable if you plan to can or freeze the vegetables.For table use, it is best to stagger plantings.Plant a few radishes every 4–5 days instead ofall at once. This will provide a steady supply ofradishes of ideal maturity over a longer time.Also stagger plantings of lettuce, beans, sweetcorn, and peas.SoilVegetables grow best in well-drained, fertilesoil. Sandy loam soils are ideal for vegetables.Most home gardens, however, do not have thissoil composition. Compost or manure spreadover the garden and worked in with a gardentiller will improve not only fertility but alsosoil tilth. Adding organic material such asmanure or compost is an important practice insuccessful gardening.Optimizing Garden SpaceUse the Vegetable Garden Calendar in theback of this book to plan your garden space.Spinach, lettuce, radishes, peas, and greenonions can be harvested early in the season.The same space is then available for lateseason crops of beans, eggplant, tomatoes, orpotatoes. Plant lettuce, radishes, or spinachbetween potatoes, cabbage, or other cole crops.Before the potatoes or cole crops get very large,the other vegetables will have been harvested.Select a place along one side of the gardenfor crops such as rhubarb, asparagus, strawberries, or bush fruits. These perennials willcontinue to grow next year without replanting.Selecting What to GrowA wide variety of vegetables can be grownin Kansas. Space available and individualpreferences play an important part in decidingwhat to grow. Beans, beets, summer squash,peppers, tomatoes, lettuce, onions, radishes,and turnips are well adapted for growth whenspace is limited.Sweet corn, vine squash, cucumbers,pumpkins, and melons require more spacefor growth and should be considered only ifadequate space is available. Don’t be afraid to6

Planning a GardenIf planted in the garden, they will be in theway during tilling operations. Ask your local K-State Research andExtension agent for the publication,Recommended Vegetable Varieties for Kansas,L41, or order from Production Services bysending an e-mail to orderpub@k-state.edu. Use varieties that have performed well foryou or other gardeners. If you plan a special use for a particularvegetable, such as freezing, exhibiting, orcanning, check with your local agent orstudy seed catalog recommendations. Check with your local seed store or gardencenter for advice on what to plant.If you do not have a seed starting structure,you may want to buy vegetable transplants forcrops that require transplanting to the garden.These can be obtained from local greenhousesor seed and garden centers. Again, make surethe varieties are what you want to produce.Plan, then purchase the seeds and plantsyou want so you will have them when youneed them for your garden.Make a SketchDraw a scale model of your garden spaceand plan the garden using the above information. Allow everyone involved to participateby suggesting their favorite vegetables. Makenotes on the plan and save it as a reference fornext year’s garden. You can also use this planwhen ordering seeds and plants.Obtaining Seeds and PlantsIn choosing varieties for the home garden,consider factors such as disease resistance,yield, maturity date, size, shape, color, andflavor. Seed companies and state agriculturalresearch stations are constantly developingand testing improved vegetable varieties andprocedures. The following sources of information are useful when choosing varieties:7

Planning a GardenTools and SuppliesFamily Garden (between 100 and1,000 sq ft)While several items are essential to raisea garden, it is not necessary to have a lot ofequipment. If your friends have gardens,you might share equipment and supplies.Select supplies according to the size gardenyou want. Mini-Garden (less than 100 sq ft) Spading fork or shovelHoeTrowelSmall sprayer or dusterPointed stakes and labelsString and yardstickFertilizerFungicides and insecticides as desiredSprinkling canCompost, manure, peat moss, sawdust,or vermiculiteGarden tillerHoe and trowelSmall sprayerPointed stakes and labelsString and yardstickFertilizerFungicides and insecticides as desiredHoseCompost, manure, peat moss, sawdust,or vermiculiteLarge Garden (more than 1,000 sq ft) 8Garden tractorHoeSprayer or dusterWheel cultivatorFertilizer spreaderWheelbarrowPointed stakes and labelsString and yardstickFertilizerFungicides and insecticides as desiredHoseCompost, manure, peat moss, sawdust,or vermiculite

CompostingCompostingCompost is a mixture of soil and decayed organic matteror humus that is used to improve garden and pottingsoil. Properly prepared compost is free from weed seedsand offensive odors and rich in nutrients that plantsneed. It may be applied as a mulch or mixed into the soilin vegetable gardens. Compost is produced in piles orpits from organic waste such as leaves, grass clippings,manures, straw, hay, and garden refuse.As residue is decomposed, temperaturedecreases, fungi disappear, and millions ofbacteria continue gradual breakdown oforganic materials into rich, dark, crumblyhumus. In regions with acid soils, wood ashesor limestone may hasten decay and preventexcess acidity and sourness.One of the greatest benefits of making compost is that it allows us to recycle garden andyard waste into a valuable, usable product,reducing the amount of solid waste going intolandfills. Converting your garden, fruit, andvegetable wastes to compost is something youcan do to improve the environment. Neighborhood composting facilities or shared familycompost piles are options. Composting smallprunings and twigs and encouraging municipalities to shred large prunings and downedlimbs allows reuse of damaged or overgrownplants in the landscape.Getting StartedLocate the compost heap in an area wherewater will not stand. Many gardeners use anout-of-the-way, accessible location near thegarden or refuse disposal site for convenience.The compost may be made using a belowground pit or an above-ground method thatdoes not require laborious digging. Althoughit is possible to simply accumulate the compost in a loose pile, an enclosure of some typeis desirable. Several materials can be used forthis purpose.Chemistry of CompostThe conversion of organic wastes to richhumus involves several types of bacteria andfungi. Bacteria begin the process of breakingdown sugars, proteins and other complex molecules in the residue. Bacteria increase rapidlyin a new compost pile. The temperature insidethe pile may rise to 150–160 F, inactivatingweed seeds and harmful disease organisms.Woven wire or wood slat fence.Various types of woven wire are available—from reinforcing wire to fencing wire. Heavy9

Compostinggauge wire that is self-supporting is preferable;however, finer wire supported by rods or postscould be used. Lining the fence with a layer ofplastic will speed decomposition by retainingmoisture necessary for microbial activity. Inorder to maintain adequate drainage and aeration, do not line the bottom.Cement blocks or bricks. Mortar isnot necessary because the weight of the blockswill hold the pile in place.Scrap lumber. Don’t use good lumberbecause the damp compost may ruin theboards. If a permanent enclosure is desired,use redwood or cypress. Old pallets frequentlycan be obtained free of charge, and strappingfour or five of these together to form a cubemakes an excellent compost bin.The size of a compost pile varies, depending on the quantity of organic material available and the amount of compost needed.Rectangular or square shapes may be slightlyeasier to work with than round ones. Roundenclosures made of wire bent into a cylinderhave the least amount of surface area to dryout and work well. Either shape can be usedsuccessfully. For most households, a pile 5 feetwide by 5 feet long or a circular pile about5 feet in diameter is sufficient. The height ofthe pile will fluctuate as organic material isadded. If you have a lot of yard materials tocompost, it is a good idea to have two or threepiles or bins, one for the finished compost fromlast year, and the others for this year’s freshmaterial.Several kinds of plant materials can be usedin the compost pile. These include leaves,grass clippings, weeds, garden refuse, finehedge clippings, straw, corn cobs, cold woodashes, sawdust, old unusable hay, and mulchraked from around flower or vegetable gardens. Avoid using severely diseased vegetableor flower plants. Kitchen scraps such as eggshells, peelings, or plant residues can be addedto the pile if covered to prevent flies, but avoidusing meat scraps or bones that may attractdogs or other animals.Making the Compost PileStart with a layer of soil or sand 2–3 inchesdeep on the bottom. Then add a layer of organic materials. For fine materials such as thingrass clippings use only a 2- to 3-inch layer; forcoarser materials such as straw, use 6- to 8-inchlayers. To hasten decomposition, add a smallquantity of commercial garden fertilizer—l–2cups per square yard of area. You may substitute an inch or two of manure. The purposeof the fertilizer or manure is to provide asource of nutrients for microorganisms thatmust build up in the compost pile to ensuredecomposition.Repeat this sequence of soil or sand, organicmaterials, and fertilizer in layers as organicmaterials become available. Water each layeras it is added.The top of the compost pile should be dishshaped or slightly lower in the center than onthe sides. This allows rainfall to soak into thepile rather than run off. Because of extremelyhigh temperatures generated by the composting process, a dry compost pile oxidizes toorapidly and the overheated, feathery compostA three compartmentcomposter is easy toconstruct. The coverkeeps things looking neat.Removable front boardsallow access for turningand removing compost.10

Compostingthat results is of little value. In dry weather, aweekly soaking of the pile is desirable to keepit sufficiently moist.The rate of decomposition can be hastenedby turning the pile — slicing through thelayers and turning them upside down. Thisaction is similar to spading garden soil when itis turned over. This mixing should be followedby reforming the “dish” at the top of the pileand watering. Compost should be ready to use4–6 months after starting the pile, but mostgardeners prefer to keep two piles or one piledivided into two sections. Materials can beaccumulated in one while last year’s finishedcompost is available for use from the other.As your compost pile progresses, thesesigns will indicate whether all is going well: In 2–3 weeks, the pile should shrink orsink. If it has not, loosen the pile with ashovel or fork to provide more aeration, oradd moisture if the compost is dry. Check for a strong ammonia or offensiveodor. This may be caused by overwatering, or an imbalance of materials. Aerateas above. Ammonia odors often comefrom composting a lot of fresh, green plantmaterial, especially grass clippings. After 4–5 weeks, or less than a week for“quick composting,” it should be hot deepwithin the pile. Push a wire or stick deepinto the pile, pull it out and touch it tocheck temperature. In 3–4 months, the pile should be abouthalf its original height. The compost willbe dark, moist and crumbly. It shouldhave the odor of moldy leaves or a richearthy odor.them useful. For those who do not wish topurchase a grinder or shredder, a rotary lawnmower can be used to pulverize or shredleaves and prunings. For mowers with baggingattachments, collect the organic materials inthe bag. With discharge mowers, blow shredded materials into a central pile by turning ina circle.Mix and add shredded organic materials,soil, and fertilizer or manure in proportionssimilar to those used for the slow compostingmethod. It is not necessary to turn the pile. Itshould be ready for use in 2–3 weeks in warmweather or 5–6 weeks in cooler weather. Thecompost may be stored for longer periods ifnot needed immediately.Quick CompostingGrass ClippingsIn recent years, the emphasis has beenon quick composting. Materials are finelyshredded, premixed with soil and fertilizer,moistened, and placed in an enclosed bag orbin. The resulting compost—in a month orso rather than 4–6 months—is comparable inquality to that of slow composting. It does,however, require slightly more effort.Several commercial bins can be purchasedfor use in quick composting processes, andeach comes with operating instructions.You can use containers such as plastic bagsor garbage cans for the same purpose. Sheetplastic and a standard enclosure work as well.Begin by lining the enclosure with sheet plastic. Next, finely shred the organic material witha soil shredder, compost grinder, or coarsehammermill. These devices are costly for mostgardeners, but the serious gardener may findA common waste, clippings caught in grasscatcher attachments on lawn mowers comprisea large part of yard wastes and are excellentmaterial for use in compost piles. However,recent research indicates it is beneficial to leaveclippings from regularly mowed lawns spreadover the lawn or mulched into it. Unless youare intent on collecting clippings to add toyour compost pile, allow grass clippings to fallback onto the lawn.Using CompostMany gardeners follow the steps to makecompost without understanding how compost can be used around the home. Compostcan be beneficial in a variety of horticulturalapplications.11A wire container used toaccumulate yard waste,which will slowlydecompose over time.Not everyone builds aperfect compost pile.

CompostingSoil improvement and fertilization.Mulching. One of the most beneficial practices for summer gardening in Kansas is usingmulch. Mulches hold moisture in the soil,prevent weed growth, and reduce soil crusting and splashing. Mulches also help to keepthe soil cooler during hot weather. A layer ofcompost 2–3 inches thick along the row of garden vegetables and flowers or spread aroundperennial flowers, trees, and shrubs reducesmoisture fluctuations and evaporation of waterfrom the soil surface. After the garden season,simply till the mulch into the soil as a source oforganic material.Potting mix for seedlings. Compostthat has been screened for large particles canbe mixed with soil or sand—in about equalparts—and used as a plant growing medium.The compost must be well deteriorated andfree of harmful disease organisms and insectsto ensure healthy seedling plants.Addition of organic material improves looseness and workability of soil. Heavy, tight claysoils benefit from the loosening effects of organic materials. But sandy soils benefit as wellfrom the improved water-holding capacity andfertility that organic materials provide.Compost also contains nutrients that plantsrequire. While the specific nutrient content ofcompost varies with the type of materials composted and the amount of water in it, a generalrecommendation is to apply compost at therate of 50–100 pounds per 100 square feet.This generally is translated to 1–2 bushels ofmaterial for every 10-foot by 10-foot area of thegarden. The best time for applying compost isjust before tillage—either in the spring or fall.Tilling incorporates the compost throughoutthe plant root zone. Many Kansans till gardensoils in the fall, and compost made early in theseason should be ready for use by then. If youhave a two-pile system, compost from last yearcan be used.Compost at planting. A band of compost in the bottom of a row trench or severalshovels full in the bottom of planting holescan be added and mixed with the soil. Thisis especially beneficial for tomato plants.The slow nutrient release of compost worksthrough the early growth period. Compost canalso be used as a top dressing over the row toprevent crusting of soil for seeded vegetables.Compost can be mixed with water to form asubstitute for soluble fertilizers or starter solutions. As a rule, mix equal parts of compostand water. The leftover compost can be addedto garden soil later.Cautions in Using CompostIt is important to understand that compostis not a cure-all for garden soils or concerns.The benefits of composting certainly outweighthe limits, but it is possible to overdo applications of compost.Some composts may provide too much ofa nutrient if applications are excessive. Lush,rapid growth—often at the expense of goodfruit production—can occur. Compost thatis not completely decomposed may continuethe process of decomposition when added tosoil in large amounts, removing or tying upsoil nutrients until decomposition slows. Thisis a particular concern with compost appliedin spring and when it is incorporated into thesoil.Creating a dark, cool environment at the soilsurface may provide an ideal area for certaintypes of insects such as sowbugs or squashbugs. Specific control measures for each ofthese insects might be necessary. Consult yourlocal K-State Research and Extension agentor garden center professional for informationabout control measures.Some types of compost applied to the soilsurface can pack into a dense layer that may bealmost impervious to water. This is frequentlyan indication of poorly made compost. Usingmore soil with the compost or mixing soil withcompost prior to use can correct this situation.Mixing compost into thesoil at planting time.12

Soil ImprovementAll garden plants depend on the soil for nutrition. Soilcondition and fertility are primary considerations inachieving a successful home garden.Adding Organic Matter¼–½ pound of superphosphate is beneficial. Rotted sawdust. Use sawdust in yourcompost pile, then apply it to the garden.Use 3–4 bushels per 100 square feet. Compost. Compost is decayed plant material. Apply 50–l00 pounds per 100 squarefeet of garden space. (See “Using Compost” on page 11.) Feedlot manure. Use 10–20 pounds per100 square feet. Adding ¼–½ pound ofsuperphosphate may be beneficial. If you use uncomposted manure, bearin mind that this is a potential source ofmicrobial contamination that could lead tofood poisoning. Applying raw manure inthe fall allows adequate time for decomposition before crop harvest the followingsummer.Organic matter is an effective way of improving all kinds of soil. As mentioned earlier,adding organic matter to the planned gardenarea is recommended. It is also beneficial toadd organic matter every few years. Organicmatter serves the following purposes: It loosens tight clay soils. It increases water-holding capacity ofsandy soils. It makes soil easier to till. It provides nutrients.One way of adding organic matter is toseed a cover crop in fall and turn it under inthe spring. This should be done only if youhave equipment such as a heavy garden tiller or plow to turn the cover crop under inthe spring. Some recommended cover cropsinclude annual ryegrass (¼–⅕ pounds per 100square feet) or rye (½–¾ pounds per 100 squarefeet) seeded in mid-September. This cover protects the garden from erosion during winter.It adds organic matter when the grass is 6–8inches tall and is turned under in the spring.However, most home gardeners prefer toadd organic matter by using one of the following materials: Stable manure. Use 50–100 pounds per100 square feet. You may want to add¼–½ pound of superphosphate as well. Poultry and sheep manure. Use 10–20pounds per 100 square feet. Again, addingGetting a Soil TestThe winter before you begin to garden youwill want to get a sample of your garden soiltested to determine pH and nutrient content.(See page 14.) The soil test provides a startingplace for a soil improvement program. Unless you know the deficiencies in your gardensoil, you are only guessing when you applyfertilizer. The soil test will tell you how muchfertilizer you must add to your garden initially.It is then much easier to maintain a high levelof fertility as you garden year after year.13

Soil ImprovementTaking a Soil SampleUse a soil probe, spade, or shovel to samplethe soil profile to a depth of 8-12 inches. It isimportant to obtain a representative sample ofthe soil in the root zone rather than from thesurface soil.It is advisable to take at least 10 samples aroundyour garden area, then combine these in a cleanbucket or pail. This provides a representativesample of the entire garden area.8-12”From the bucket or pail, select about a pint ofsoil. Special soil sample containers are availablefrom your local K-State Research and Extension office or a fertilizer supplier.You may use aclean milk carton, ice cream container, or similarpackage. Label it with your name, address, andinformation on the garden crops to be grown. Ifyou send more than one sample, b e sure to labeleach plainly.Your local agriculture or horticulture agent willeither test the sample in the county soil lab orsend it to the Kansas State University soil testinglaboratory. The agent will make recommendations on the amounts of fertilizer to use on yourgarden. Rely on your local agent for informationand advice concerning your garden.SamplesCheck with your local K-State Research andExtension agent for soil testing information.Check your phone directory for County Extension Council.agent can recommend the amount of lime orother material needed to correct the soil pH.Correcting soil pH can be as important in improving plant growth as adding fertilizers.Controlling Soil pHFertilizing the GardenThe pH of the soil is a measure of acidity oralkalinity. Most plants grow best in a soil thatis neither too acid nor too alkaline. Extremesof acidity or alkalinity are possible in Kansas soils. These extremes may make the soilnutrients unavailable to plants. Because of theparent rock materials, previous fertilizer use,cropping sequence, or other factors, the pH ofthe soil may differ from the desirable range.One part of the soil test is measurement ofthe pH and, if needed, a recommendation ofthe amount of lime necessary to reduce soilacidity. Some people refer to liming as “sweetening the soil.” Sulfur or other materials maybe used on alkaline soils to reduce soil pH tothe desired level.Most eastern and central Kansas gardensmay have soils that become too acid, while thesoils of western Kansas tend to be alkaline.Your local K-State Research and ExtensionFertilizing is an important practice, but it isnot a cure-all. Fertilization cannot compensatefor these problems: poor soil structure that does not allow foradequate drainage or aeration undesirable soil pH or salt content of thesoil poor seeds, diseased or unhealthy plants shade trees or tree roots in or around thegarden area.The addition of organic matter will ensurethat some fertilizer nutrients are in the soil.You may need to add commercial fertilizer aswell. Most chemical fertilizers are simply rockor mineral materials rich in nutrient elements.Fertilizer TypesThe nutrient elements that plants requirecan be supplied by either organic or commer14

Optimum pH Range for Vegetable ageMuskmelonsSweet CornPumpkinsTomatoesSnap BeansLima rd SquashEggplantWatermelonsPeasSpinachSummer nionsRadishesCauliflowerPotatoes* Information from “Liming Vegetable Crops,” University of Illinois Cooperative Extension Service.cial fertilizers. All plants require 16 nutrientelements for growth. Thirteen of these comefrom the soil. When organic fertilizers areused, they must break down to release thesebasic fertilizer elements in the soil before theplants can use them.Regardless of the form of fertilizer—organicor chemical— the plant makes no distinction aslong as the nutrients are there. However, largequantities of organic materials must be usedcompared with more concentrated commercialfertilizers.Organic fertilizers. Organic matter isa vital part of any soil and benefits the soil inseveral ways. When incorporated into the soil,decaying organic residue serves several usefulfunctions: loosens tight clay soils to provide betterdrainage provides for better soil aeration, which isnecessary for good root growth increases water-holding capacity of allsoils—especially helpful on sandy soils makes soil easier to till and easier for plantroots to penetrate supplies nutrients for plant growth.Chemical fertilizers. Nutrients mostfrequently lacking for growth are nitrogen (N),phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). N (Nitrogen)—This nutrient elementprovides dark green color in plants. Itpromotes rapid vegetative growth. Plantsdeficient in nitrogen have thin, spindly15

Soil ImprovementMaterials to Add to Correct Soil pHLime (to increase pH)pH level from soil test (increase to 6.5)Lb Ground Limestone/100 sq ft4.0Sandy SoilLoam SoilClay Soil91319114.5575.52310661615731045Sulfur (to lower pH)pH level from soil test (decrease to 7.0)Lb Sulfur (95%)/100 sq ft7.5Sandy SoilLoam SoilClay Soil3451.588.5598268378Add all materials to soil and incorporate to a depth of 6 inches with soil tillage when no crops are growing in thegarden area.Note: Specific recommendations by your local county agent may vary from these amounts based on local conditionsand knowledge of specific soil factors. Use your local recommendations in preference to this table if available.stems, pale or yellow foliage, and smallerthan normal leaves. P (Phosphorus)—This nutrient promotesearly root formation, gives plants a rapid,vigorous start, and hastens blooming andmaturity. Plants def

The food from a vegetable garden is only one of the many benefits of home gardening. The relaxation and enjoyment derived from gardening is well known to all home garden-ers. A garden allows even the youngest family member to help in gathering food. Gardening is an excellent 4-H or you