FITNESS TESTINGFORSWIMMINGSteve Haupt2015 Speedo Coaches Conference,

Fitness Testing for SwimmingTesting and measurement are the means of collectinginformation upon which subsequent training andperformance evaluations and decisions are

Fitness Testing for Swimming Fitness is a vital part of success in swimming Many physical, physiological and psychological components combine to make'good' swimmer The relevance of these components depends on race distance, age, sex, strokeswum, etc. Ideally, fitness tests used to access a swimmer should reliably and repeatedlyduplicate these fitness components The interpretation of results should also be relative to the importance of thevarious fitness components as related to the swimmers specific situation(male/female, pre/post puberty, junior or senior swimmer, sprinter or distanceswimmer,etc)

Fitness Testing for Swimming A swimmer is more than their 200 IM PB and 7x200 Step Test Swimming results alone offer very little information about yourprogramme The more information you have about your swimmers, the betterdescisions you can make Complete assessment of a swimmer must include all relevantcomponents necessary for

Components of SwimmingQuestion: What is important in swimming success? Body Size and CompositionReaction TimeMuscle StrengthMuscular EndurancePowerSpeedAgilityFlexibilityBalance and CoordinationAnaerobic CapacityAerobic CapacityTechniqueMental 'toughness'

Components of Swimming Body Size and Composition:–– Reaction Time:–– Strength and power are important for explosive starts, and for fast and powerfulturnsAnaerobic Capacity:– Starts are very important, particularly over short distance eventsThe body's physical reaction time is not something that can usually be trained,though starting practice, technique and improvements in power can improve aswimmers startStrength and Power:– Swimmers are usually tall and relatively leanSome body fat is not a hindrance as it can add to buoyancy in the waterThe sprint swimming events rely heavily on the anaerobic systemAerobic Capacity:–Cardiovascular endurance is arguably the most important physiological factor inswimming

Components of Swimming Agility:– Flexibility:– Can the swimmer maintain a state of equilibrium (balance) in a static position?Vital for maintaining correct body shape or 'Swimming Signature' in all eventsGood eye/hand coodination is a basic requirement of all sports, evenswimming!Psychological:– Greater range of motion and general flexibility will improve technique, trainingeffectiveness and recovery in your swimmersBalance and Coordination:––– Brings together a range of attributes, such as strength, speed, balance,coordination. Vital in any good athleteIs the swimmer up to the task, or too anxious to perform? Not discussed hereTechnique:–The number one important component for swimming success - also notdiscussed here!

Testing the Complete SwimmerFitness ComponentTestAerobic EnduranceCSS, 7 x 200 Step Test, Pulse Plot TestAnaerobic EnduranceSprint Index Test (SIT)Body CompositionBody Fat PercentageFlexibilitySit and Reach TestCore StrengthCore Muscle Strength Stability TestElastic StrengthStanding Long Jump TestBalanceStanding Stork Test - BlindCoordinationEye Hand Coordination TestReaction TimeRuler Drop TestAgilityLateral Change of Direction

Swimming Specific Tests Aerobic Capacity Tests– Critical Swim Speed (CSS) Test– 7 x 200 Step Test Anaerobic Capacity Test– Sprint Index Test (SIT) Training Adaptation Test– Pulse Plot

Critical Swim Speed (CSS) Purpose:– The objective of the Critical Swim Speed(CSS) test is to monitor the athlete'sAerobic Capacity (Ginn 1993)Gives You:–––––CSS value can be used to determinegoal training times for the swimmerRepeat Distance / CSS goal time (sec)E.g. 400m training swim for a swimmerwith CSS of 1.28m/s yields a goal time of312.5sec 5:12.5Training at or just below this pace yieldssignificant aerobic training adaptationsIf swimmers CSS, or speed at thresholdincreases, race performance will

Critical Swim Speed (CSS) Equipment:–– PoolStopwatchMethod:––––––2 Methods commonly used400m 50m and 400m 200mSwim 400m (D1) all out, record time(T1). Rest 10min, then swim 50/200m(D2) all out and record time (T2)CSS (D2-D1) / (T2-T1)Compare result with swimmer'sprevious results for this test.With effective training between eachtest, results would show improvementin the athlete's lactate threshold andcritical swim

Critical Swim Speed (CSS) Who Is It For?– Experienced swimmers (male andfemale), who are brave enough to pushIs It a Reliable Test?––CSS has been shown to be a validmeasure of a swimmers aerobic capacityCSS speed is also about 80-85% of100m PB, and 90-95% of 400m

7 X 200 Step Test Purpose:– To test Aerobic Capacityduring normal swimming Gives you:– Heart rate/Velocity curve or aLactate/Velocity curve– Changes in these are used tomonitor changes in swimmingspecific Aerobic fitness– A good estimate of AnaerobicThreshold from the

7 X 200 Step Test Advantages:– The detailed measurementsprovide great feedback to thecoach and swimmer Disadvantages:– The equipment and assistantsrequired make this a costlyand time consuming

7 X 200 Step Test Equipment:–––––25m or 50m PoolPace ClockStopwatchLactate TesterHeart Rate Monitor Record:––––All splits and total timesStroke rate (strokes/min)Strokes per lengthRPE (scale of 6-20) and heartrate after each swim, AND– Lactate measure at 3min aftereach

7 X 200 Step Test Method:–––Take the swimmers 200m PB (eg 1:55)Add 5sec to account for push-off startand that it's a training situation, toestimate the time for the final max effortswim (No. 7) (eg 1:55 5sec 2:00)Working in reverse order from the 7thswim, add 5sec for each subsequentinterval to establish the test goals, forexample:RepeatGoal TimeNo. 11:55 :35 2:30No. 21:55 :30 2:25No. 31:55 :25 2:20No. 41:55 :20 2:15No. 51:55 :15 2:10No. 61:55 :10 2:05No. 71:55 :05

7 X 200 Step Test Who Is It For?– Experienced swimmers (maleand female), who have goodpacing ability Is It a Reliable Test?– As it relies on good pacingability of the swimmers,practice will improve this, aswell improve the reliability ofyour

Pulse Plot Test Purpose:– To test the effectiveness of thetraining programme by measuringTraining Adaptation Gives You:– Heart Rate vs. Speed graph– For a given speed, a moreconditioned swimmer will have alower heart rate, and a fasterrecovery then a less conditionedswimmer– By watching the shift of theresultant curve, the coach candetermine training effectiveness,and even catch overtrainingbefore it's

Pulse Plot Test Equipment:–––– PoolStopwatchHeart Rate Monitor (or use a manualmeasure)Recording SheetRecord:––Time for each swimHeart Rate at the end of each swim,as well as after 30sec and 1min aftereach

Pulse Plot Test Method:––––––––Swim 8 x 100m on 4:30 in Main StrokeEffort of each swim is70 - 80 - 90 - 100 - 100 - 90 - 80 - 70Swimmer measures heart rate on completionof swim (6 or 10sec count), at :30 and againat 1:00Time for the swim is recorded in secondsPlot Total Heart Rate against Speed (m/s)Draw a 'best fit' line and compare this toprevious testsShift to Left OvertrainingShift to Right Desirable Training

Pulse Plot Test Who Is It For?– Experienced swimmers (maleand female), who have goodpacing and heart rate reportingability Is It a Reliable Test?– As it relies on good pacingability and accurate heart ratereporting by the swimmers,practice will improve this, aswell as improve the reliabilityof your

Sprint Index Test Purpose:– To measure a swimmersAnaerobic Capacity Gives You:– An easy and quick index of aswimmers ability to maintainperformance in the Anaerobicrange– The lower the index score, thebetter the swimmer copes withanaerobic

Sprint Index Test Equipment:– 25m Pool– Stopwatch Method:– 6 x 12.5m or 15m all out sprintsfrom a pushoff, swimming easy to25m on :30– Time each effort as accurately aspossible - use markers on laneropes and pool side to maketiming accurate– Record the swimmer's

Sprint Index Test Calculate:Sprint Index (SI) Weight x Distance2Time3Velocity DistanceTimeFatigue Index (Max SI - Min SI) 0.405Total TimeSprint #TimeVelocitySprint .com

Sprint Index Test Assessment:– Compare the swimmer's results toprevious tests– Appropriate and effective training will: Increase in the swimmers Average VelocityIncrease the SI scores for MaxSI, MinSIand Average SIDecrease the Fatigue

General Population TestsThese tests are land based andare not sports specific Advantage is that largepopulations have been testedand meaningful norms andpercentiles exist againstwhich you can compare yourswimmersGenerally, these tests areeasy to administer, requirelittle or no specialistequipment, and are not overlytime

Bodyfat Percentage Test Purpose:– To measure the swimmer's levelof body fat and hence theirBody Composition Normative Data:– The average healthy man has15-17% body fat– The average healthy woman has18-22% body fat– Elite level male swimmers have9-13% body fat– Elite level female swimmers have14-24% body

Bodyfat Percentage Test Method:–A set of calipers is used to measure thethickness of the skinfold on the right side ofthe body at: –Triceps, vertical skinfold midwaybetween the shoulder and the elbowon the back of the armBiceps, vertical skinfold midwaybetween the shoulder and the elbowon the front of the armSubscapula, diagonal skinfold justbelow the scapulaSuprailiac, diagonal skinfold just abovethe hip boneTotal all measurements, and refer to body fatcomposition tables to determine body

Sit and Reach Test Purpose:– To measure lower back andhamstring Flexibility as an indicatorof general flexibility Method:–––––Secure a ruler to the top of a box so the15cm mark on the ruler is in line with thefront of the box, with the zero end pointingtoward the swimmerSwimmer sits on the floor with straight legsand their bare feet up against the boxPlacing one hand on top of the other, theswimmer slowly reaches as far forward aspossible, and holds the position for at least2sec - bouncing not allowed!Record the distance on the ruler reachedby the fingertipsPerform the test 3 times, and use theaverage for

Sit and Reach Test Normative Data:– The test is widely used, andnormative data exists for manyspecific populations– For example, American NationalNorms for 16 - 19 years olds:ExcellentAbove AverageAverageBelow AveragePoorMale 14cm11.0 - 14.0cm7.0 - 10.9cm4.0 - 6.9cm 4cmFemale 15cm12.0 - 15.0cm7.0 - 11.9cm4.0 - 6.9cm

Core and Stability Test Purpose:– To monitor the development ofthe swimmer's abdominal andlower back muscles, or theirCore Strength Gives You:– A measure of core strength– Poor core strength will lead toinstability and wasting energy– Good core strength means yourswimmer can move with a highdegree of

Core and Stability Test Method:–––––––––Stage 1 - hold start position for 30secStage 2 - lift right arm off ground, extend tothe front and hold parallel to the ground for15secStage 3 - return to start, lift left arm as beforeand hold for 15secStage 4 - Return to start, lift and extend rightleg parallel to the ground and hold for 15secStage 5 - Return to start, lift and extend leftleg parallel to the ground and hold for 15secStage 6 - Return to start, lift left arm andright leg parallel to the ground and hold for15secStage 7 - Return to start, lift right arm andleft leg parallel to the ground and hold for15secStage 8 - Return to start, hold this positionfor a further 30secStage 9 - End of

Core and Stability Test Result:– The swimmers scorecorresponds to the lastcompleted position– If the swimmer can't completethe test, core strength is lackingand should be brought into thetraining programme 2-3 timesper week until the test can

Standing Long Jump Test Purpose:– To measure progression in aswimmer's Elastic Leg Strengthuseful for starts and turns Gives You:– Results that can be compared tonormative data from severalgeneral or specific populations– Information about the potentialexplosive leg power of yourswimmer, and hence allowsinformed descisions abouttraining

Standing Long Jump Test Equipment:– A hard place to take off– A soft place to land– Tape measure Method:– Swimmer warms up for 10min– From a stationary position, the swimmercrouches down and, using both armsand legs, jumps as far as possible,landing on both feet.– Measure the distance from the toeposition at launch to the heel position atlanding– Repeat the test 3 times, using thelongest jump to calculate

Standing Long Jump Test Who is it For?– Anyone aged 14 and over Is it a Reliable Test:– The test is used by sports andeducation institutions all over theworld and the normative data ishighly reliable15-16 yrsExcellentAbove AverageAverageBelow AveragePoorMale 2.01m2.00 - 1.86m1.85 - 1.76m1.75 - 1.65m 1.65mFemale 1.66m1.65 - 1.56m1.55 - 1.46m1.45 - 1.35m 1.35mThe world record for the standing long jump was held by Norwegian Arne Tvervaag who, in 1968, jumped 3.71 meters!T

Reaction Time Ruler Drop Test Agility Lateral Change of Direction Test. Aerobic Capacity Tests – Critical Swim Speed (CSS) Test – 7 x 200 Step Test Anaerobic Capacity Test – Sprint Index Test (SIT) Training Adaptation Test – Pulse Plot Test Swimming Specific Tests . Purpose: – The objective of the Critical Swim Speed (CSS) test is to .