TAJWEEDSaffar 1433January 2012Al-Mahdi Islamic CenterLondon - Ontario
Definition of Tajweed By linguistic definition: BettermentApplied definition: Articulating every letter from itsarticulation point and giving the letter its rights anddues of characteristics.The Goal of Learning TajweedIt is preserving the tongue from mistakes inpronunciation of the Glorious Qur'an duringreading.
Learning TajweedMistakes Done while reading holy Quran are of twokinds: Obvious mistakes: those are done while pronouncingthe letters or the signs on the letters. Almost, anyoneshould be able to recognize these mistakes. Unobvious: are the ones that are done with thetajweed rules. Only those who studied tajwed areable to distinquish them. Learning Tajweed is WAJEB on every muslim.Teaching Tajweed is only wajeb when there is noone else doing so.
How to learn TajweedIts principlesThe knowledge of tajweed is contingent on fourmatters: 1. Knowledge of the articulation points of the letters2. Knowledge of the characteristics of the letters3. Knowledge of the rules of tajweed (what changein the letters due to the order of letters)4. Exercising the tongue and a lot of repetition.
The articulation point of the arabicletters The articulation point of a letter is the place theletter is emitted. Using the correct articulation pointof a letter is necessary to utter the letter correctly.The no. of articulation points in Arabic are 17To learn the articulation point of a letter Pronouncethe letter with a Sukoon and put a hamzahbefore the letter
Places of ArticulationThere are five articulationareas for the Arabicletters:1- The empty space in themouth and throat (AlJowf)2- The Throat3- The Tongue4- The Two Lips5- The nasal passage
Places of Articulation
Places of Articulation and the Arabicletters
Articulation point areas ( AL-Jawf and letter )ا 1- The empty space in the mouth andthroat (AL-Jawf)has in it one articulation point for thethree lengthened (meed) letters, whichare wow و , ya’ ي and an alif ا .1.The alif preceded by a letter with afat-hah. Note that the Arabic alifnever takes a vowel (means withsukoon) and is always preceded by afathah)Like in: مالك ، مال ، قال But not in: أقرأ . Here the first and last lettersare ء not alif
Articulation point areas ( AL-Jawf andletter )و 2. The wow with a sukoonpreceded by a letter with adhammahLike in: نوحيها
Articulation point areas ( AL-Jawf andletter )ي 3. The ya’ with a sukoonpreceded by a letter with akasrahLike in: نوحيها
The articulation points of the throat (thehamzah ( )ء and the ha’ ( ))هاء 2- The Throat: there are threeplaces of articulation in thethroat, each place has two lettersemitted from therein.1. The deepest part of the throatThe deepest part of the throat isthe furthest away from the mouthand the closest to the chest. Twoletters are articulated fromhere. They are the hamzah ( )ء and the ha’ ( )هاء
The articulation points of the throat ( ع and )ح 2. The middle part of the throatThe middle part of the throatlies half way in between thebeginning and the end of thethroat. The two letters thatare emitted from here are: ع and ح .
The articulation points of the throat( غ and )خ 3. The closest part of thethroatThe closest part of thethroat is the beginning ofthe throat, or the closest tothe mouth. Two letters arearticulated from this area,they are: غ and خ .
The articulation points of the tongue ( )ق 3- The tongue : It has tenarticulation points for eighteenletters1.There are two letters that usethe deepest part of the tonguein articulation. They are ق and ك . ق is articulated from the deepestpart of the tongue and what liesopposite to it from the roof ofthe mouth in the area of the softpalate.
The articulation points of the tongue( ) ك ك is articulated from thedeepest part of the tongueand what lies opposite to itfrom the roof of the mouthin the area of the hardpalate.This letter is closer to themouth than the ق .
Areas of the tongue Areas of the tongue used for articulation There arefour areas of the tongue used for articulation. Thedeepest part, the middle, the sides, and the tip. Thefollowing picture helps pinpoint these areas.
The articulation points of the tongue( ج , ش , ) ي 2. Middle of the Tongue Three letters use the middle of the tongue for theirarticulation. They are ج , ش , ( ي without a medd). These three letters are articulated from the middle of thetongue and what lies opposite to it from the roof of themouth. The ya’ here is not the medd letter ya’, which is articulatedfrom Al-Jwaf. The medd letter ya’ is a ya’ saakinahpreceded by a kasrah, NOT a fath. The ya’ saakinah is preceded by a fath is discussed here.Like in : علَيهم and الريب َ
Middle of the Tongue- ي -- ش -- ج -
The articulation points of the tongue( )ض The letter ض This letter is articulated from the one or both sides ofthe tongue and from the molars and the gum area nextto the molars.This letter can be articulated from one side (right orleft) of the tongue alone, or from both sides of thetongue simultaneously which is more difficult. ض has the characteristic of compression of the sound,as well as tafkheem (heaviness), so the deep part of thetongue raises up when pronouncing it and compressesthe sound at the same time.
The letter ض
The articulation points of the tongue( )ل The letter ل It is articulated from front sides andthe tip of the tongue, and what liesopposite to them of the gums ofupper front incisors. The articulation of this letter is thenin the shape of an arc, with bothsides until the tongue ends at the tipmeeting up with gums of thementioned teeth. The articulation of the ل is anupward movement, not a forwardmovement like “L” is in English.
The articulation points of the tongue ( )ن Articulation points of the Tip of the Tongue and theThe letter ن This letter is articulated from the tip of the tongue andwhat lies opposite to it from the gum of the two fronttop incisors, a bit forward from the place of the letter ل on the gum.It’s pronounced from this point only if it has a sukoon onit and is followed by one of the following six letters: ء خ ، غ ، ح ، ع ، هاء ،. This rule will be explained later, insha’Allah.
The articulation points of the tongue ( )ن
The articulation points of the tongue ( )ر The letter ر This letter is emitted from the tip of the tongue withthe top of the tip and what lies opposite to it of thegums of the two front top incisors (the palate).The tip with the top of the tip need to strike thegums to produce this sound correctly.
The articulation points of the tongue ( )ر
The articulation points of the tongue) ت ، د ، (ط The articulation point of the ت ، د ، ط These letters are pronounced from the top side ofthe tip of the tongue and the gum line of the twofront upper incisors.
The articulation points of the tongue) ت ، د ، (ط - ت - د -- ط -
The articulation points of the tongue) س ، ز ، (ص Articulation points of the س ، ز ، ص These three letters are emitted from the tip of thetongue and the top edge of the two front lowerincisors.There is a little space left in between the tip of thetongue and the plates of the teeth whenpronouncing these letters.When these letters are emitted properly, a whistletype sound should be heard accompanying theirsound.
The articulation points of the tongue) س ، ز ، (ص - ز - س -- ص -
The articulation points of the tongue) ث ، ذ ، (ظ Articulation point of the ث ، ذ ، ظ These letters are emitted from the tip of the tongue(from the top side of the tip) and the bottom edgesof the two top front incisors.Care should be taken to make sure the top of thetip is really colliding or separating with the edgesof the teeth and not the plates of the teeth.
The articulation points of the tongue) ث ، ذ ، (ظ - ث - ذ -- ظ -
The articulation points of the Lips (theletter )ف 2- The LipsThe lips have two articulation points for four letters. Articulation point of the letter ف The articulation point of the ف is between the inside ofthe lower lip and the tips (or edges) of the two top frontincisors.There is a meeting of these two parts of articulation tomake the correct sound of this letter.
The articulation points of the Lips (theletter )ف
The articulation points of the Lips (theletter و ، ب ، )م Articulation point of the two lips و ، ب ، م There are three letters that are articulated from thetwo lips, but they do not all three share the samemechanism in articulation.The unlengthened و is articulated by forming acircle of the two lips without the two lips meetingcompletely.The م is articulated by closing the two lips togetherThe letter ب is articulated by closing the two lipstogether, but a stronger closing than the meem.
The articulation points of the Lips (theletter و ، ب ، )م ب ف و م
The articulation points of the NasalPassage (the ghunnah ن and )م 5- The nasal passageFrom the hole of nose towards the inside of the mouth,here there is one articulation point, that of the ghunnah. The ghunnah is defined as: a nasal sound that is emittedfrom the nose. This is a required characteristic of the ن and م .The ghunnah is not a letter but a characteristic of thesetwo letters, but it has its own distinct place ofarticulation.
The articulation points of the NasalPassage (the ghunnah ن and )م - م -- ن -
Referenceshttp://www.abouttajweed.com/Useful videos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v 8FZRQEEdGuo&feature related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v NbI6 neGiX0&feature related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v AjXHMxaRsM&feature related
Mistakes Done while reading holy Quran are of two kinds: Obvious mistakes: those are done while pronouncing the letters or the signs on the letters. Almost, anyone should be able to recognize these mistakes. Unobvious: are the ones that are done with the tajweed rules. On