9- 2What Is a Product ?n Anythingthat can be offered to a market for attention,acquisition, use or consumption.n Satisfiesa want or a need.n Includes:n Physical Productsn Servicesn Personsn Placesn Organizationsn Ideasn Combinations of theabove

What Is a Product ?n Product: A bundle of attributesn The Total Productn Tangible attributes: materials, size, weight, design, packaging,performance, comfortn Intangibles: brand image, styling, other benefits (installation,delivery, credit, warranty, after-sale service, return policy)

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ProductCharacteris8cs/Classifica8onsPersons easGoodsServicesPlaces


ProductLevelsCore Benefit(Restandsleep)Basic Product(Bed,bathroom,towels)Expected Internet;freebreakfast)Potential Product(Futureaugmenta8ons)Customer- ‐valueHierarchy

ProductClassifica8onsDurability andTangibilityNondurablegoodsDurablegoodsServices

ProductClassifica8ons ods






ProductandBrandRela8onshipsProduct HierarchyProduct Systems/MixesProduct Line AnalysisProduct Line LengthProduct Mix PricingCo-Branding

ProductHierarchyNeed FamilyProduct FamilyProduct ClassProduct LineProduct TypeItem


Proctor&GambleProductMixProduct Mix WidthProductLineLengthDetergentsShampooBar SoapDisposableDiapersIvory SnowPanteneIvoryPampersDreftHead cesSafeguardDashBoldGainEraOil ofOlay

ProductLineAnalysisSales and ProfitMarket Profile

Product- ‐ItemContribu8ons


ProductLineLengthUp- turing,andpruningTwo- ‐waystretchDown- ‐marketstretchLinefilling

ProductMixPricingProductlinepricingCap8ve- ‐productpricingOp8onal- ‐featurepricingTwo- ‐partpricingBy- ‐productpricingProduct- ‐bundlingpricing

Co- ‐BrandingandIngredientBrandingCo- ‐Branding Same- ‐companyJointventureMul8- ‐sponsorRetailco- ‐brandingIngredientBranding

andiden8fica8onPersuadeProtec8onAt- 4.Iden8fyGradeDescribePromote

Figure 9-1:Three Levels of Product9- 29

Product Related Global Driversn Demand Driversn n n n Higher expectationsMore informationHigher switching costsFull-service expectations

931 Services Marketingn Servicesn Accountfor 74% of U.S.gross domesticproduct.n Service industriesinclude businessorganizations,government, andprivate not-for-profitorganizations.

The Goods - Service ContinuumClothingFurnitureHouses Automobiles“Pure” Goodseasier to evaluateRestaurant MealsVacationsHair CutsTV RepairLegal ServicesMedical Diagnosis“Pure” Servicesdifficult to evaluate

933 Continuum of Evaluation forDifferent Types of ProductsMost GoodsHigh in SearchQualitiesMost ServicesHigh in ExperienceQualitiesHigh in CredenceQualities

Figure 9-5:Four ServicesCharacteristics9- 34

935 BusinessNowSite59 Video ClipThe perishability ofservices such asairline seats createsspecial challengesfor marketersClick the picture above to play video

Figure 9-6:Three Types of Marketingin Services Industries9- 36

937 Service Buying Behaviorn Consumer Decision Making Process for Servicesn - Information Searchn - Evaluation Criteria for Alternativesn - Perceived Riskn - Brand Loyalty

938 Services Marketingn Servicen Then n Firm Marketing StrategiesService-Profit ChainInternal Marketing: service firmstrain and effectively motivate theiremployees to work as a team tosatisfy the customerInteractive Marketing: recognizes thatservice quality depends heavily on thequality of buyer-seller interaction

939 Services Marketingn ServiceFirm Marketing Strategiesn ManagingService DifferentiationBritish Airwaysdifferentiates its serviceby offering first-classworld travelers private“demi-cabins”

Service Qualityn Elements of Service Qualityn - Tangiblesn - Reliabilityn - Responsivenessn - Assurancen - Empathy940

941 Services Marketingn ServiceFirm Marketing Strategiesn Managingn n n n One method of differentiationCustomer retention is often the best measureTop service firms are “customer obsessed”Service recovery and employmentempowerment are keyn Managingn n Service QualityService ProductivityMany methods of enhancing productivityKey is to avoid reducing quality

See you next week!J

10.11.2017 · BRANDING STRATEGIES SAS ! Anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption. ! Satisfies a want or a need. ! Includes: ! Physical Products ! Services ! Persons ! Places ! Organizations ! Ideas ! Combinations of the above 9- 2 What Is a Product ? What Is a Product ? ! Product: A bundle of attributes ! The Total Product ! Tangible attributes: materials .