Consumer Behavior - Pearson


Consumer BehaviorBuying, Having, and BeingThirteenth EditionMichael R. SolomonSaint Joseph’s UniversityA01 SOLO5691 13 SE FM.indd 101/11/2018 03:27

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Such references arenot intended to imply any sponsorship, endorsement, authorization, or promotion of Pearson’s products by the owners of such marks, or any relationshipbetween the owner and Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates, authors, licensees, or distributors.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataNames: Solomon, Michael R., author.Title: Consumer behavior : buying, having, and being / Michael R. Solomon,Saint Joseph’s University.Description: Thirteen Edition. Hoboken, NJ : Pearson, [2019] Revisededition of the author’s Consumer behavior, [2017]Identifiers: LCCN 2018049249 ISBN 0135225698 (pbk.)Subjects: LCSH: Consumer behavior.Classification: LCC HF5415.32 .S6 2019 DDC 658.8/342—dc23LC record available at 10: 0-13-5225698ISBN 13: 978-0-13-5225691A01 SOLO5691 13 SE FM.indd 201/11/2018 03:27

BRIEF CONTENTSSection1Foundations of Consumer Behavior 3Chapter 1 Buying, Having, and Being: An Introduction toConsumer Behavior 4Chapter 2 Consumer Well-Being 33Section2Internal Influences on Consumer Behavior 71Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Section3Perception 72Learning and Memory 108Motivation and Affect 149The Self: Mind, Gender, and Body 180Personality, Lifestyles, and Values 228Choosing and Using Products 273Chapter 8 Attitudes and Persuasive CommunicationsChapter 9 Decision Making 320Chapter 10 Buying, Using, and Disposing 354Section4274Consumers in Their Social and Cultural Settings 391Chapter 11Chapter 12Chapter 13Chapter 14Group Influences and Social Media 392Income and Social Class 439Subcultures 474Culture 513Appendix I: Careers in Consumer Research 572Appendix II: Research Methods 574Appendix III: Sources of Secondary Data 579Glossary 581Index 597iiiA01 SOLO5691 13 SE FM.indd 301/11/2018 03:27

CONTENTSSection 1 Foundations of Consumer Behavior 3Major Policy Issues Relevant to Consumer Behavior 44Data Privacy and Identity Theft 44Market Access 46Sustainability and Environmental Stewardship 48The Dark Side of Consumer Behavior 531Buying, Having, and Being:An Introduction to ConsumerBehavior 4Consumer Behavior: People in the Marketplace 5What Is Consumer Behavior? 6Consumers’ Impact on Marketing Strategy 8Consumers Are Different! How We Divide Them Up 8User-Generated Content (UGC) 13Marketing’s Impact on Consumers 13Popular Culture Is Marketing Is Popular Culture . . . 13All the World’s a Stage 15What Does It Mean to Consume? 16Consumer Terrorism 53Addictive Consumption 54Consumed Consumers 57Illegal Acquisition and Product Use 57Chapter Summary 59Key Terms 59Review 60Consumer Behavior Challenge 60Case Study Marketing Responsibly: Patagonia RedefinesWhat It Means to Be Transparent and Authentic 62Section 1 Data Case: Analyzing the Athletic ShoeMarket 67The Global “Always-On” Consumer 18The Digital Native: Living a Social [Media] Life 19Consumer Behavior as a Field of Study 20Where Do We Find Consumer Researchers? 21Interdisciplinary Influences on the Study of ConsumerBehavior 21Two Perspectives on Consumer Research 23Consumer Trends: Keep Ahead to Keep Up 25Taking It from Here: The Plan of the Book 27Chapter Summary 27Key Terms 28Review 28Consumer Behavior Challenge 29Case Study Hey Alexa—What Is Consumer Behavior? 302Consumer Well-Being 33Business Ethics and Consumer Rights 34Needs and Wants: Do Marketers ManipulateConsumers? 35Consumers’ Rights and Product Satisfaction 38ivMarket Regulation 40Consumerism 42Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 43Transformative Consumer Research 43Social Marketing 43A01 SOLO5691 13 SE FM.indd 4Section 2 Internal Influences onConsumer Behavior 713Perception 72Sensation 72Sensory Marketing 74Augmented and Virtual Reality 81The Stages of Perception 82Stage 1: Exposure 83Subliminal Perception 85Stage 2: Attention 88Personal Selection Factors 90Stage 3: Interpretation 93Stimulus Organization 94Semiotics: The Meaning of Meaning 96Perceptual Positioning 100Chapter Summary 101Key Terms 102Review 102Consumer Behavior Challenge 103Case Study The Brave New World of Subway Advertising 10401/11/2018 03:27

vContents4Learning and Memory 108How Do We Learn? 108Behavioral Learning Theories 109Marketing Applications of Classical ConditioningPrinciples 111Marketing Applications of Repetition 111Marketing Applications of Conditioned ProductAssociations 112Marketing Applications of Stimulus Generalization 113Instrumental Conditioning 114Marketing Applications of Instrumental ConditioningPrinciples 117Gamification: The New Frontier for Learning Applications 118Cognitive Learning Theory 119Observational Learning 119Is Learning Conscious or Not? 120How Do We Learn to Be Consumers? 121Memory 126How Our Brains Encode Information 127How Our Memories Store Information 129How We Retrieve Memories When We Decide What to Buy 132What Makes Us Forget? 133How We Measure Consumers’ Recall of MarketingMessages 136Bittersweet Memories: The Marketing Power ofNostalgia 138Chapter Summary 140Key Terms 141Review 141Consumer Behavior Challenge 142Case Study Gap Takes Customers Back in Time—to theNineties! 1435Chapter Summary 172Key Terms 172Review 173Consumer Behavior Challenge 173Case Study The Louis Vuitton 2900 Smartwatch—High Tech or High Fashion? It’s All in the Eye of theBeholder 1756The Self 180Does the Self Exist? 181Self-Concept 181Are We What We Buy? 187The Extended Self 189Embodied Cognition 191Wearable Computing 192Gender Identity 194Sex Role Socialization 195Female Sex Roles 197Male Sex Roles 199Androgyny 200Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT)Consumers 204The Body as Product 204Ideals of Beauty 205Body Decoration and Mutilation 214Body Anxiety 215Chapter Summary 218Key Terms 219Review 219Consumer Behavior Challenge 220Case Study Retailer Eloquii Believes That Fashion Doesn’tStop at Size 12 221Motivation and Affect 149The Motivation Process: Why Ask Why? 149Motivational Strength 150Motivational Direction 151Motivational Conflicts 153How We Classify Consumer Needs 155Affect 158Types of Affective Responses 158Positive Affect 160Negative Affect 161How Social Media Tap into Our Emotions 163Consumer Involvement 164The Self: Mind, Gender,and Body 1807Personality, Lifestyles, andValues 228Personality 229Consumer Behavior on the Couch: Freudian Theory 229Neo-Freudian Theories 232Trait Theory 233Brand Personality 239Lifestyles and Consumer Identity 245Product Complementarity and Co-Branding Strategies 248Psychographics 249Types of Involvement 165A01 SOLO5691 13 SE FM.indd 501/11/2018 03:27

viContentsValues 255Core Values 256How Do Values Link to Consumer Behavior? 260Chapter Summary 263Key Terms 263Review 264Consumer Behavior Challenge 264Case Study Beyoncé’s Beyhive—Honeybees and KillerBees in Love with Their Queen 265Cognitive Decision Making 323Steps in the Cognitive Decision-MakingProcess 324Neuromarketing 330Online Decision Making 331How Do We Put Products into Categories? 333Habitual Decision Making 339Heuristics: Mental Shortcuts 339AI: Who’s Calling the Shots? 342Priming and Nudging 343Section 2 Data Case: Evolving Trends in Fitness andFrench Fries 270Section 3 Choosing and UsingProducts 2738Attitudes and PersuasiveCommunications 274The Power of Attitudes 275The ABC Model of Attitudes 276How Do We Form Attitudes? 279Attitude Models 285Do Attitudes Predict Behavior? 288Persuasion: How Do Marketers Change Attitudes? 292Decisions, Decisions: Tactical Communications Options 293The Elements of Communication 293The Source 295The Message 299New Message Formats: The Social Media Revolution 303Types of Message Appeals 306The Source Versus the Message: Do We Sell the Steak or theSizzle? 309Chapter Summary 311Key Terms 311Review 312Consumer Behavior Challenge 313Case Study Anti-Smoking Advertising—Can You Be Scaredinto Quitting? 3149Decision Making 320What’s Your Problem? 321Hyperchoice: Too Much of a Good Thing! 321Self-Regulation 322A01 SOLO5691 13 SE FM.indd 6Chapter Summary 345Key Terms 346Review 346Consumer Behavior Challenge 347Case Study P&G and the Moments of Truth—Just HowMany Moments Are There? 34910Buying, Using, andDisposing 354Situational Effects on Consumer Behavior 355The Consumption Situation 355The Shopping Experience 359Mood 360When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough GoShopping 361E-Commerce: Clicks versus Bricks 363Digital currency 365Retailing As Theater 366Store Image 367In-Store Decision Making 368Spontaneous Shopping 369The Salesperson: A Lead Role in the Play 371Ownership and the Sharing Economy 371Postpurchase Satisfaction and Disposal 372Postpurchase Satisfaction 373Product Disposal 373Recycling and the Underground Economy 375Chapter Summary 376Key Terms 377Reviews 378Consumer Behavior Challenge 378Case Study RH—Revolutionizing PhysicalRetailing 380Section 3 Data Case: Cats, Kibble, and Cable TV 38601/11/2018 03:27

viiContentsSection 4 Consumers in TheirSocial and Cultural Settings 39111Group Influences and SocialMedia 392Groups 393Social Power 394Reference Group 395Conformity 397Brand Communities 399Collective Decision Making: How Groups Influence WhatWe Buy 400B2B Decision Making 400The Intimate Corporation: Family DecisionMaking 405How Families Decide 406Word-of-Mouth Communication 410Buzz Building 411Negative WOM 412Opinion Leadership 412How Influential Is an Opinion Leader? 414Types of

Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Thirteenth Edition Michael R. Solomon Saint Joseph’s University A01_SOLO5691_13_SE_FM.indd 1 01/11/2018 03:27. Vice President, Business, Economics, and UK Courseware: Donna Battista Director of Portfolio Management: Stephanie Wall Executive Portfolio Manager: Lynn M. Huddon Editorial Assistant: Rachel Chou Vice President, Product