SOL REVIEW QUESTIONS For World History And Geography To .


SOL REVIEW QUESTIONSforWorld History and Geography to 1500 A.D.WHI.2 REVIEW #1What shaped how early human societies lived their lives? ENVIRONMENTOn what continent did the first forms of man evolve? AFRICAWhat form of early man emerged about 100,000 to 400,000 years ago? HOMO SAPIENSHomo sapiens migrated from Africa to where? EURASIA, THE AMERICAS, AUSTRALIAHow did early man gain his food? HUNTING AND GATHERINGEarly man was dependent on the availability of what? WILD PLANTS AND ANIMALSWHI.2 REVIEW #2Early man was able to overcome his physical environment because he developed what? FIREName 2 characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies. SMALL NOMADIC CLANS, SIMPLE TOOLSName 4 things which developed during the Old Stone Age. SIMPLE TOOLS, ORAL LANGUAGE, FIRE,CAVE ARTWhat is another name for the Old Stone Age? PALEOLITHIC ERAA person who migrates in search of food, water and shelter is a ? . HUNTER-GATHERERWHI.2 REVIEW #3Name 5 things which developed during the New Stone Age. AGRICULTURE, DOMESTICATION OFANIMALS, POTTERY, WEAVING, ADVANCED TOOLSWhat is another name for the New Stone Age? NEOLITHIC ERAWhat effect did agriculture have on how early man lived? ALLOWED FOR PERMANENT SETTLMENTSWhat does carbon dating do? DETERMINES THE AGE OF FOSSILS/ARTIFACTS, ETC.What is an artifact? SOME PHYSICAL REMAIN FROM AN ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONWho studies past cultures by locating & analyzing human remains, fossils, and artifacts? ARCHEOLOGISTWhat archaeological site in England was built during the Neolithic period & Bronze Age? STONEHENGEWHI.3 REVIEW #4What did river valleys provide for early civilizations? FERTILE SOILThe area located from the Mediterranean coast to Mesopotamia is called what? FERTILE CRESCENTWhen did the first river civilizations appear? 3500 TO 500 B.C.1

Egypt is located next to what river? NILE (AFRICA)What area is located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers? MESOPOTAMIAWhat river valley civilization was located in India? INDUS AND GANGESOn what river was China’s river civilization located? HUANG HEWHI.3 REVIEW #5The Nile River is located on what continent? AFRICAOn what continent is Mesopotamia located? ASIAWhere did the first civilizations develop? RIVER VALLEYSWhat groups invaded river valley civilizations? INDO-ARYANSWho settled between the Mediterranean Sea and Jordan River Valley? HEBREWSWhat group settled along the Eastern Mediterranean coast? PHOENICIANSWhat civilization was located on the upper Nile River Valley? KUSHWHI.3 REVIEW #6Where were the “Cradles of Civilization” located? RIVER VALLEYSWho ruled Egypt? THE PHAROAHHow did rulers in the river valleys gain power? AS RELIGIOUS AND MILITARY LEADERSWhat is a dynasty? A FAMILY WHO RULES (POWER IS INHERITED)(True)(False) Most river civilizations had a rigid class system. TRUEWhat was accepted in most river valley civilizations? SLAVERYThe government of early Mesopotamian civilizations often had a centralized government based on what?RELIGIONWHI.3 REVIEW #7Name the two written law codes of the Fertile Crescent. TEN COMMANDMENTS & HAMMURABI’S CODEWhat is an empire? FORMERLY INDEPENDENT PEOPLES/STATES WHO COME UNDER ONE RULEWhat political system is characterized by a city and its surrounding lands? CITY STATEWhat were two metals used to make tools and weapons? IRON, BRONZE, & COPPERWhat group traded throughout the Mediterranean Sea and on Middle Eastern rivers? PHOENICIANSName 3 reasons river valley civilizations had an agricultural surplus. FERTILE SOIL, ENOUGH LABOR,WATER FOR CROPSWhere were the world’s first cities located? RIVER VALLEYS (MESOPOTAMIA FIRST)WHI.3 REVIEW #82

People who do work according to their skills are practicing what? SPECIALIZED LABORWhat type of religion did most people of the Fertile Crescent practice? POLYTHEISMWhat type of religion did the Hebrews follow? MONOTHEISMJudaism is the foundation of what other religions? CHRISTIANITY & ISLAMWhich civilization was the first to follow one God? JUDAISMWho led the Hebrews out of Mesopotamia and helped found the Jewish faith? ABRAHAMWho received the Ten Commandments? MOSESWHI.3 REVIEW #9What is the holy city of the Hebrews? JERUSALEMWho led the Jews out of Egypt? MOSESWhat states the proper moral and religious conduct for Hebrews? TEN COMMANDMENTSWhat is the written records and beliefs of the Hebrews? TORAHWhat is the belief in one God? MONOTHEISMWhat is the religion of the Hebrews? JUDAISMThe Hebrews were captured and taken to Babylon. What is this called? EXILEWHI.3 REVIEW #10The Hebrews were forced to leave Palestine because they rebelled too often. What is this called? DIASPORAWhat civilization used hieroglyphics? EGYPTWhat were 2 important cultural innovations developed in early river valleys? WRITTEN LANGUAGE &RELIGIONWhat civilization developed the alphabet as we know it? PHOENICIAWhat civilization used cuneiform? MESOPOTAMIA (SUMER)The earliest written symbols were called what? PICTOGRAMWHI.4 REVIEW #11The Persian civilization developed from what previous civilizations? MESOPOTAMIAN & CENTRAL ASIANCIVILIZATIONSHow did the Persians treat the people they conquered? THEY WERE TOLERANTWhat is a bureaucracy? GOVERNMENT WHERE SPECIFIC DUTIES ARE GIVEN TO DIFFERENTPEOPLEWhat religion did the Persians follow? ZOROASTRIANISMWhat did the Persians do to improve communication and trade in their empire? BUILT AN EXTENSIVEROAD SYSTEM3

Who had the largest empire in the ancient world before Alexander the Great? PERSIAWhat was the second river valley in India to be settled? GANGESWHI.4 REVIEW #12Who invaded and conquered the original Indus River Valley civilization? INDO-ARYANSWhat was India’s rigidly structured social system based on occupation? CASTE SYSTEMName 3 geographic barriers which made invading India harder. HINDU KUSH, HIMILAYAS, & INDIANOCEANWhat mountains are to the west of the Indian sub-continent? HINDU KUSHWhat mountains are to the east of the Indian sub-continent? HIMILAYASThrough what mountain range did invaders reach India? HINDU KUSHWhat are the 2 main rivers of the Indian subcontinent? INDUS & GANGESWHI.4 REVIEW #13What did the caste system influence? SOCIAL CLASS & OCCUPATIONDuring what empire was India’s Golden Age of Culture? GUPTAName 2 non-religious contributions of India. MATHEMATICS & LITERATUREWhat was the religion of classical India? HINDUISMWhat religion believes in one major deity who takes many forms? HINDUISMThe Indian cycle of rebirth is called what? REINCARNATIONFuture reincarnation based on present behavior is what? KARMAWHI.4 REVIEW #14What are the sacred writings of Hinduism? VEDAS & UPANISHADSWhat religion did Siddhartha Gautama found? BUDDHISMWhere was Buddhism founded? INDIAWhat does a Buddhist have to do to gain Enlightenment? EIGHTFOLD PATH TO ENLIGHTENMENTWho was Buddha? SIDDARTHA GUATAMAWho sent missionaries to spread Buddhism throughout Asia? ASOKA (MAURYAN RULER)What are the 2 basic beliefs of Buddhism? LIFE IS SUFFERING, SUFFERING IS CAUSED BY DESIRE,END SUFFERING BY ENDING DESIRE, END DESIRE THROUGH EIGHTFOLD PATHIn what river valley was classical China’s civilization located? HUANGE HEWHI.4 REVIEW #15What is another name for the Huang He? YELLOW RIVERFrom where did migratory invaders enter China? NORTHWhy was the Great Wall built? TO KEEP INVADERS FROM THE NORTH OUT4

About when did China’s civilization begin? 1500 B.C.What 2 religions did China contribute? CONFUCIANISM & TAOISMWho built the Great Wall of China? QIN RULER SHI HUANGDIThe ruling families of China were called what? DYNASTIESChinese rulers served under the authority of what? MANDATE OF HEAVENWHI.4 REVIEW #16What does this mean? CHINESE RULERS WERE CONSIDERED DIVINE HAD HAD THE RIGHT TORULE ONLY AS LONG AS HEAVEN DEEMED THEIR RULE JUSTChinese emperors were considered to be what? DIVINEWhat connected China to cultures as far away as Rome? THE SILK ROADSPeople who work for the bureaucracy of China were part of what? THE CIVIL SERVICEWhat fabric did China contribute to the world? SILKName 4 contributions of classical China. SILK, PORCELAIN, PAPER, LATEEN SAILWhat religion believes that humans are good, not bad? CONFUCIANISMName 5 beliefs of Confucianism. HUMANS ARE GOOD, NOT BAD; PEOPLE SHOULD BE EDUCATED;GOVERNMENT SHOULD BE RUN BY A CIVIL SERVICE, EVERYONE SHOULD BE RESPECTFUL,ESPECIALLY TO ELDERS, ANCESTORS SHOULD BE REVERED/WORSHIPPEDWHI.4 REVIEW #17In what country do citizens respect their elders and worship their ancestors? CHINAWhat belief of Confucianism still influences China today? RESPECT & POLITENESSWhat represents opposites in Daoism and Confucianism? YIN/YANGWhat religion believes in a simple life and inner peace? DAOISM (TAOISM)What religion believes man should live in harmony with nature? DAOISM (TAOISM)Buddhism from where spread throughout Asia? INDIAWhat 3 religions are practiced in China? BUDDHISM, CONFUCIANISM, & TAOISMWHI.5 REVIEW #18What geographic feature shaped the economic, social, and political development of Greece? AEGEAN BASINThe Hellenic civilization took place in what country? GREECEHow did the Greeks spread the Hellenic culture? THROUGH TRADE, COLONIZATION, & CONQUESTWhat sea is located east of Greece? AEGEANWhat sea is located south of Greece? MEDITERRANEANWhat strait leads to the Black Sea? DARDANELLESWhat peninsula is located east of Greece? ASIA MINOR5

WHI.5 REVIEW #19What area was located north of Greece and was the home of Alexander the Great? MACEDONIAWhat were the 2 main city-states of Greece? ATHENS & SPARTAWhy was agriculture limited in ancient Greece? TERRAIN WAS MOUNTAINOUSTo trade one good for another is to do what? BARTERWhat was the chief occupation of the Greeks? TRADERSGreeks practiced barter, but later changed over to what? CURRENCY/MONEY ECONOMYWhat geographical feature isolated and hindered the development of Greek city-states? MOUNTAINSWHI.5 REVIEW #20Why did the Greeks colonize outside Greece? OVERPOPULATION & TO SEARCH FOR ARABLE LANDWhat did the design of Greek city-states promote? CIVIC & COMMERCIAL LIFEThe Greeks practiced what kind of religion? POLYTHEISM (MYTHOLOGY)Name 3 things Greek mythology explained. HUMAN QUALITIES, LIFE EVENTS, & NATURALPHENOMENAWhy is Greek mythology still important today? MANY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION’S SYMBOLS,METAPHORS, WORDS, AND IDEALIZED IMAGES COME FROM ANCIENT GREEK MYTHOLOGYName six Greek gods/goddesses. ZEUS, HERA, APHRODITE, ATHENA, APOLLO, & ARTEMISWHI.5 REVIEW #21What city-state had the most democratic government of its time? ATHENSWho were Greek citizens? FREE ADULT MENWhat responsibility did Greek citizens have? TO PARTICIPATE IN GOVERNMENTWhat 3 groups had no political power? WOMEN, SLAVES, & FOREIGNERSWhat kind of government was ruled by one family who inherited power? DYNASTYWHI.5 REVIEW #22What government is ruled by a small group of nobles? ARISTOCRACYWhat government is ruled by one person who seized power? TYRANNYWhat government is ruled by citizens who could vote? DEMOCRACYWho created written laws with severe punishments? DRACOWho improved the legal system & expanded participation in the Assembly? SOLONWhat city-state had a direct democracy? ATHENSWhat 3 democratic principles began in Athens? DIRECT DEMOCRACY, PUBLIC DEBATE, CIVIC DUTY6

WHI.5 REVIEW #23Which Greek city-state had a militaristic and aggressive society? SPARTAWhat Greek city-state had an oligarchy? SPARTAWhich city-state had a rigid social structure? SPARTAWhat type of government is ruled by a small group? OLIGARCHYWhich wars united Athens and Sparta against an external enemy? PERSIAN WARSWhat was a result of the Persian War for Athens? PRESERVED INDEPENDENCE & CONTINUEDINNOVATIONS IN CULTURE & GOVERNMENTName 2 battles of the Persian Wars. MARATHON & SALAMISWHI.5 REVIEW #24A result of the Persian War for the Greeks was the control of what sea?. MEDITERRANEANWhich war came first--Peloponnesian or Persian? PERSIANWhat was the alliance headed by Athens? DELIAN LEAUGEWhat war was caused by competition between Athens & Sparta for control of the Greek world?PELOPPONESIAN WARWhat war caused a slowing of culture and a weakening of political power in Greece? PELOPPONESIAN WARWhat was the alliance headed by Sparta? PELOPPONESIAN LEAGUEWho was Pericles? ATHENIAN LEADER DURING THE GOLDEN AGE OF ATHENS WHO EXTENDEDDEMOCRACY AND HELPED REBUILD THE CITY AFTER THE PERSIAN WARSWHI.5 REVIEW #25Who rebuilt Athens after the Persian Wars? PERICLESWhat building was rebuilt after the Persian Wars? THE PARTHENONDuring whose reign was democracy was extended so all adult male citizens could vote & participate in thegovernment? PERICLESThe Golden Age of Pericles was between what 2 wars? PERSIAN & PELOPPONESIANWho wrote the Iliad & the Odyssey? HOMERName 2 Greek dramatic playwrights. SOPHOCLES & AESCHYLUSName the first Greek historian. HERODOTUS (FATHER OF HISTORY)WHI.5 REVIEW #26What Greek historian wrote about the Peloponnesian War? THUCYDIDESWho was the Greek sculptor who created the statue of Athena in the Parthenon? PHIDIASWhat kind of columns are on the Parthenon? DORIC (OLDEST)What were the 3 types of Greek columns? DORIC, IONIAN, & CORINTHIAN7

Who was the Greek who developed the lever and pulley? ARCHIMDEDESWho was the father of medicine? HIPPOCRATESName 3 Greek philosophers. SOCRATES, PLATO, & ARISTOTLEWho developed a theory about right triangles? PYTHAGORASWHI.5 REVIEW #27Who was the father of geometry? EUCLIDWhat war made it easier for the Macedonians to conquer Greece? PELOPPONESIAN WARWhat Macedonian conquered most of Greece? PHILLIP IIName 3 areas controlled by Alexander the Great. EGYPT, GREECE, & PERSIAWhat did Alexander the Great spread? HELLENIC CULTUREWho conquered the Persian Empire and most of the ancient world? ALEXAND

What group traded throughout the Mediterranean Sea and on Middle Eastern rivers? _ . What religion believes in a simple life and inner peace? _DAOISM (TAOISM)_ What religion believes man should live in harmony with nature? _ DAOISM (TAOISM)_ Buddhism from where spread throughout Asia? _INDIA _ What 3 religions are practiced in China? _BUDDHISM, CONFUCIANISM, &