Aviation Mechanic Handbook - Michelin


AviationMechanicHandbookSixth Editionby Dale CraneAviation Supplies & Academics, Inc.Newcastle, Washington

Aviation Mechanic Handbook, Sixth EditionDale CraneAviation Supplies & Academics, Inc.7005 132nd Place SENewcastle, Washington 98059-3153Website: www.asa2fly.comEmail: asa@asa2fly.com 1992 – 2011 Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc.All rights reserved. Sixth Edition 2011.Acknowledgments: Greg Mellema/Abaris, Section 17; Champion AviationProducts, Appendix 2; Concorde Battery, Appendix 3; Michelin Aircraft Tire,Appendix 4.Printed in the United States of America2014201320122011987654321ISBN ary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:Crane, Dale.Aviation mechanic handbook / by Dale Cranep.cm.“ASA-M-HB1”—T.p. verso.1. Airplanes — Maintenance and repair — Handbooks, manuals,etc. I. Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc. II. Title.TL671.9.C6648 1992629.134'6 — dc2092-34331 CIP02

IntroductionYour time as an aviation mechanic is too valuable to be spent lookingthrough stacks of reference books to find a particular chart, formula ordiagram you need on a particular job. The editorial staff at ASA has donethis job for you and compiled this Aviation Mechanic Handbook to be ahandy toolbox source of useful information.For your convenience, this handbook is arranged in 17 sections with atable of contents at the beginning of each section, as well as a completetable of contents at the front of the book and index at the back.This information has been compiled from a large number of industry andgovernment publications, and every effort has been made to ensure itsapplicability and accuracy.The ASA Aviation Mechanic Handbook is a companion volume to theASA Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms. The two books are the core ofASA’s training materials for aircraft mechanics.ASA is dedicated to providing quality training materials for the aviationindustry. Your feedback regarding our books will help us to continueto produce the materials you need. Visit the ASA website often(www.asa2fly.com) to find updates to operations and procedures dueto FAA changes that may affect this publication, downloadable fromASA’s Product Update pages.ASA and the author wish to thank Greg Mellema of Abaris Training forhis contribution of the material for Section 17, “Composites” for the ThirdEdition of the Aviation Mechanic Handbook.Dale Crane, Editor

ContentsIntroduction .iiiSection 1: General Information.11.1Fraction, Decimal, and Metric Equivalents. 31.2Conversions. 41.3Aircraft Nomenclature. 13Axes of an Airplane. 13Forces Acting on an Aircraft in Flight. 13Types of Aircraft Structure. 14Truss. 14Monocoque. 14Semimonocoque. 151.4Joint Aircraft System/Component (JASC) Code. 161.5Aircraft Nationality Identification. 281.6Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations. 311.7Standard Taxi Signals. 34Section 2: Physical and Chemical . 35Periodic Table of Elements. 362.1Temperature Conversion. 37Absolute Temperature. 422.2ICAO Standard Atmosphere. 432.3Distribution of Electrons in the Chemical Elements. 442.4Density of Various Solids and Liquids. 47Density of Various Gases. 472.5Hydraulic Relationships. 482.6Quantity of Liquid in a Drum. 50Estimating Quantity of Liquid in a Standard 55-Gallon Drum. 50v

Section 3: Mathematics . 513.1Measurement Systems. 53The International System of Units (SI). 53The Metric System. 54U.S. – Metric Conversion. 54Length. 54Weight. 55Volume. 553.2Mathematical Constants. 563.3Mathematical Symbols. 573.4Squares, Square Roots, Cubes, Cube Roots of Numbers. 583.5Diameter, Circumference and Area of a Circle. 613.6Geometric Formulas. 64Triangle. 64Square. 64Rectangle. 64Parallelogram. 64Trapezoid. 64Regular Pentagon. 65Regular Hexagon. 65Regular Octagon. 65Circle. 65Ellipse. 65Sphere. 66Cube. 66Rectangular Solid. 66Cone. 66Cylinder. 663.7Trigonometric Functions. 673.8Powers of Ten. 713.9Number Systems. 74Binary Equivalent of Decimal. 74Octal Equivalent of Decimal. 74Binary Equivalent of Octal. 74Hexadecimal Number System. 74Binary Coded Decimal Equivalent of Decimal. 75The Gray Code. 75American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). 75Special Control Functions Used in ASCII. 77vi

Section 4: Aircraft Drawings . 794.1Types of Aircraft Drawings. 81Sketches. 81Detail Drawings. 81Assembly Drawings. 81Installation Drawings. 81Sectional Drawings. 81Cutaway Drawing. 81Exploded-View Drawing. 81Schematic Diagram. 82Block Diagram. 82Repair Drawings. 82Wiring Diagrams. 82Pictorial Diagrams. 82Orthographic Projections. 824.2Meaning of Lines. 834.3Material Symbols. 844.4Location Identification. 85Fuselage Stations. 85Water Lines. 85Butt Lines. 85Wing and Horizontal Stabilizer Stations. 85Section 5: Aircraft Electrical Systems. 875.1Electrical Symbols. 895.2Alternating Current Terms and Values. 975.3Ohm’s Law Relationships. 985.4Electrical Formulas. 100Formulas Involving Resistance. 100Formulas Involving Capacitance. 101Formulas Involving Inductance. 103Formulas Involving Both Capacitance and Inductance. 106Resonant Frequency. 106Total Reactance. 106Impedance. 106vii

5.5Electrical System Installation. 107Selection of Wire Size. 107Notes on Wire Installation. 112Switch Derating Factors. 114Wire and Circuit Protectors. 115MS Electrical Connectors. 116Resistor Color Code. 120Aircraft Storage Batteries. 122Lead-Acid Batteries. 122Nickel-Cadmium Batteries. 123Section 6: Aircraft Materials .1256.1Composition of Wrought Aluminum Alloys. 1276.2Four-Digit Designation System for Wrought Aluminum Alloys. 1286.3Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloys. 1296.4Temper Designations for Aluminum Alloys. 130Heat-Treatable Alloys. 130Non-Heat-Treatable Alloys. 1306.5Temperatures for Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys. 1316.6Bearing Strength (in pounds) of Aluminum Alloy Sheet. 1326.7Shear Strength of Aluminum Alloy Rivets. 133Single-Shear Strength (in pounds) of Aluminum-Alloy Rivets. 133Double-Shear Strength (in pounds) of Aluminum-Alloy Rivets. 1336.8SAE Classification of Steel. 1346.9Strength of Steel Related to its Hardness. 1356.10Color of Steel for Various Temperatures. 1366.11Color of Oxides on Steel at Various Tempering Temperatures. 137Section 7: Tools for Aircraft Maintenance .1397.1Measuring and Layout Tools. 141Steel Rule.

Aviation mechanic handbook / by Dale Crane p. cm. “ASA-M-HB1”—T.p. verso. 1. Airplanes — Maintenance and repair — Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc. II. Title. TL671.9.C6648 1992 629.134'6 — dc20 92-34331 CIP 02. Introduction Your time as an aviation mechanic is too valuable to be spent looking through stacks of reference books to find a particular .