The Handbook Of Managing And Marketing Tourism Experiences


The Handbook of Managing andMarketing Tourism Experiences

The Handbook of Managingand Marketing TourismExperiencesEdited byMarios SotiriadisUniversity of South Africa, Pretoria, South AfricaDogan GursoyWashington State University, Pullman, WA, USAUnited Kingdom North America JapanIndia Malaysia China

Emerald Group Publishing LimitedHoward House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UKFirst edition 2016Copyright r 2016 Emerald Group Publishing LimitedReprints and permissions serviceContact: permissions@emeraldinsight.comNo part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording or otherwise without either the prior writtenpermission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying issuedin the UK by The Copyright Licensing Agency and in the USA by TheCopyright Clearance Center. Any opinions expressed in the chapters arethose of the authors. Whilst Emerald makes every effort to ensure the qualityand accuracy of its content, Emerald makes no representation implied orotherwise, as to the chapters’ suitability and application and disclaims anywarranties, express or implied, to their use.British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British LibraryISBN: 978-1-78635-290-3 (Print)ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7 (Online)ISOQAR certifiedManagement System,awarded to Emeraldfor adherence toEnvironmentalstandardISO 14001:2004.Certificate Number 1985ISO 14001

ContentsList of ContributorsixIntroductionxiMarios Sotiriadis and Dogan GursoyPart ICHAPTER 1Planning: Design and Creating TourismExperiencesExperience-Based Service Design3Özlem GüzelCHAPTER 2Experience-Centric Approach and Innovation21Anita ZátoriCHAPTER 3Crucial Role and Contribution of HumanResources in the Context of TourismExperiences: Need for ExperientialIntelligence and Skills45Marios Sotiriadis and Stelios VarvaressosCHAPTER 4Tourism Destination: Design of Experiences65Eyup Karayilan and Gurel CetinCHAPTER 5Social Media and the Co-Creation of TourismExperiencesMarianna SigalaCHAPTER 685Experiential Tourism: Creating andMarketing Tourism Attraction ExperiencesRachel Dodds and Lee Jolliffe113v

viCONTENTSPart IICHAPTER 7Managing: Organizing and DeliveringTourism ExperiencesCultural and Experiential TourismHilary du CrosCHAPTER 8Dragon Boat Intangible Cultural Heritage:Management Challenges of a Communityand Élite Sport Event as a TourismExperienceFleur FallonCHAPTER 9133155Collaborating to Provide Attractive HotelGuests’ ExperiencesMarios Sotiriadis and Christos Sarmaniotis175CHAPTER 10 Managing Sport Tourism Experiences:Blueprinting Service EncountersChris A. Vassiliadis and Anestis Fotiadis195CHAPTER 11 Authenticity, Commodification, andMcDonaldization of Tourism Experiencesin the Context of Cultural TourismMedet Yolal217CHAPTER 12 Managing Experiences within the Field ofCreative Tourism: Best Practices andGuidelinesCaroline Couret235CHAPTER 13 Greening as Part of Ecotourism toContribute to Tourists’ Experiences:A Destination Planning ApproachElricke Botha and Willy Hannes Engelbrecht261CHAPTER 14 Managing Rural Tourist Experiences:Lessons from CyprusAnna Farmaki281CHAPTER 15 Service Innovations and Experience Creationin Spas, Wellness and Medical TourismMelanie Kay Smith, Sonia Ferrari and László Puczkó299

ContentsPart IIIviiMarketing: Communicating andPromoting Tourism ExperiencesCHAPTER 16 The Role of Online Social Media on theExperience and Communication of Gay Eventsin a Tourist Destination: A Case Study of aSmall-Scale Film Festival in NiceS. Christofle, C. Papetti and M. Ferry323CHAPTER 17 Marketing Experiences for Visitor Attractions:The Contribution of ThemingElricke Botha343CHAPTER 18 Marketing Culinary Tourism ExperiencesLee Jolliffe363CHAPTER 19 Managing and Marketing TourismExperiences: Extending the Travel RiskPerception Literature to Address AffectiveRisk PerceptionsAshley Schroeder, Lori Pennington-Gray, MaximilianoKorstanje and Geoffrey Skoll379CHAPTER 20 Promotion Tools Used in the Marketing ofSport Tourism Experiences in a MatureTourism DestinationCrystal C. Lewis and Cristina H. Jönsson397CHAPTER 21 The Role of Information and CommunicationTechnologies (ICTs) in Marketing TourismExperiencesKyung-Hyan Yoo and Ulrike GretzelPart IV409Monitoring and Evaluating TourismExperiencesCHAPTER 22 Memorable Tourism Experiences:Conceptual Foundations and ManagerialImplications for Program Design, Delivery,and Performance MeasurementJong-Hyeong Kim431

viiiCONTENTSCHAPTER 23 Proposing an Experiential Value Modelwithin the Context of Business TourismMagdalena Petronella (Nellie) Swart451CHAPTER 24 Consumer Travel Online Reviews andRecommendations: Suggesting Strategiesto Address Challenges Faced within theDigital ContextMarios Sotiriadis and Ciná van Zyl469CHAPTER 25 Assessing Tourism Experiences:The Case of Heritage AttractionsGaunette Sinclair-Maragh487Conclusions: Issues and Challenges for Managing andMarketing Tourism ExperiencesDogan Gursoy and Marios Sotiriadis507About the Authors529Index541

List of ContributorsElricke BothaUniversity of South Africa, Pretoria,South AfricaGurel CetinIstanbul University, Istanbul, TurkeyS. ChristofleUniversity of Nice Sophia Antipolis,Nice, FranceCaroline CouretCreative Tourism Network , Barcelona,SpainRachel DoddsRyerson University, Toronto, CanadaHilary du CrosUniversity of New Brunswick,Fredericton, CanadaWilly HannesEngelbrechtIndependent Institute of Education,Gauteng, South AfricaFleur FallonFormerly Sun Yat-sen University,Zhuhai, ChinaAnna FarmakiCyprus University of Technology,Limassol, CyprusSonia FerrariUniversity of Calabria, Rende, ItalyM. FerryInstitut Paul Bocuse, Ecully, FranceAnestis FotiadisI-Shou University, Kaohsiung, TaiwanUlrike GretzelUniversity of Queensland, St Lucia,AustraliaÖzlem GüzelAkdeniz University, Antalya, TurkeyLee JolliffeUniversity of New Brunswick,New Brunswick, CanadaCristina H. JönssonThe University of the West Indies,St Michael, BarbadosEyup KarayilanIstanbul University, Istanbul, TurkeyJong-Hyeong KimSun Yat-sen University, Guangdong,Chinaix

xLIST OF CONTRIBUTORSMaximilianoKorstanjePalermo University Argentina, BuenosAires, ArgentinaCrystal C. LewisThe University of the West Indies,St Michael, BarbadosC. PapettiUniversity of Nice Sophia Antipolis,Nice, FranceLori Pennington-Gray University of Florida, Gainesville, FL,USALászló PuczkóBudapest Metropolitan University ofApplied Sciences, Budapest, HungaryChristos SarmaniotisAlexander Technological EducationalInstitute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki,GreeceAshley SchroederUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, FL,USAMarianna SigalaUniversity of South Australia, y of Technology, Jamaica,Kingston, JamaicaGeoffrey SkollBuffalo State University, Buffalo, NY,USAMelanie Kay SmithBudapest Metropolitan University ofApplied Sciences, Budapest, HungaryMarios SotiriadisUniversity of South Africa, Pretoria,South AfricaMagdalena Petronella(Nellie) SwartUniversity of South Africa, Pretoria,South AfricaCiná van ZylUniversity of South Africa, Pretoria,South AfricaStelios VarvaressosTechnological Educational Institute(TEI) of Athens, Athens, GreeceChris A. VassiliadisUniversity of Macedonia, Thessaloniki,GreeceMedet YolalAnadolu University, Eskisehir, TurkeyKyung-Hyan YooWilliam Paterson University ofNew Jersey, Wayne, NJ, USAAnita ZátoriCorvinus University of Budapest,Budapest, Hungary

IntroductionTourists desire a series of services that allow multipleoptions and experience opportunities. For tourists, theproduct is the total experience, covering the entire amalgam of all aspects and components of the experience encounter,including attitudes and expectations. Tourists generally perceiveand evaluate their visit as an experience, even though the variousservices are offered by different operators. In fact, their visit consists of a structured series of services and providers/producers,which operate separately. From the supply side, the tourismoffering is definitely a series of experiences achieved througha combination of a diverse array of products and services(Middleton, Fyall, Morgan, & Ranchhod, 2009). Hence, offeringthese experiences requires the involvement, partnering, andcollaboration of a series of businesses (Gursoy, Saayman, &Sotiriadis, 2015).The tourism experience is, by definition, “what peopleexperience as tourists” (Sharpley & Stone, 2011, p. 1). Tourismdestinations and providers of tourism services do nothing elsethan providing experience opportunities to people during theirtrips. What exactly is an experience? Literature suggests manydifferent meanings and interpretations. According to a straightforward description, an experience is “the fact or state of havingbeen affected by or gained knowledge through a direct observation or participation” (Merriam-Webster, 1993). Apparently, thecustomer experience is derived from the pursuit of fantasies,feelings, and fun. Experience refers to customers’ wonderfulmemories associated with a place/location (destination); it is thecore value of tourism consumption. In the broader social context,experience combines the actions of individual customers with thesituations under which consumption will occur (Schmitt, 1999).According to Sundbo and Darmer, “ experiences occurwhenever a company intentionally uses services as the stageand goods as props to engage the individual” (2008, p. 11).Therefore, an experience occurs whenever companies intentionallyxi

xiiINTRODUCTIONconstruct it to engage customers. Every tourism company offers acustomer experience. The more aware a business is of what type ofexperience is desired by consumers and by offering the type ofexperiences desired by consumers, the more likely they are to besuccessful.Experience Economy: Anatomy of anExperiencePine and Gilmore (1998) set out the vision for a new economicera, the experience economy, in which consumers are in searchfor extraordinary and memorable experiences. In the experienceeconomy, during the last decades, the attention is shifted awayfrom product or service delivery to the customer’s experience asthe value-added element (Mossberg, 2007; Pine & Gilmore,1998; Schmitt, 1999; Schmitt, 2003). In an attempt to better analyze and contextualize the concept, researchers proposed variousapproaches regarding what creates experiences (see, e.g.,Boswijk, Thijssen, & Peelen, 2007; Mossberg, 2007). However,Pine and Gilmore (1999) are less concerned with specific elementsof what creates an experience. They instead suggest four maindimensions/realms of experiences along two axes: the customer’slevel of participation and the customer’s connection with theenvironment or surroundings. The same authors suggest that anexperience begins as an event where a tourist experiences (activity) an attraction or business (resources) within a particular context or situation. This event generates a reaction and thatreaction results in a memory upon which the tourist reflects andcreates new meaning. Ultimately the tourist, through this meaning-making process, both increases his or her understanding ofthe world and of the self as well.While there are many ways to define an experience, Pine andGilmore (1999) suggest the following equation depicting the“anatomy of an experience.” Experience can be regarded as theentirety of the process consisting of the following formula (wherethe arrow means “causes”):ðActivity þ Situation þ ResourceÞ Event Reaction Memory¼ Experience

IntroductionxiiiIt is believed that the experience formation takes place in consumers’ mind, and the outcome of experience consumption dependson how the consumers, based on a specific situation or state ofmind, react to the staged encounters (Mossberg, 2007; Pine &Gilmore, 1999; Schmitt, 2003). Obviously, the managerial functions of planning, designing, organizing, and marketing influencegreatly the event or the type of an experience consumers arelikely to have.Tourism ExperiencesTourists travel for a variety of reasons: to escape, explore, understand, and participate. But at the core of the experience lies theproviders of tourism services and the destination the businessesand the place that deliver/provide something to the tourist tokeep forever and share with others (Middleton et al., 2009;Morrison, 2013; Sharpley & Stone, 2011). Every tourist experiences a trip, holidays, or an attraction, but quality of their experiences depend on the activities and providers they select. Service isan essential component of delivery of most form of tourism activities. Services include but not limited to those functions that atourist might or might not be able to perform for him or herselfbut in all cases choose someone else to perform it for them.Services take place at locations where the activity is offered (suchas the travel, the accommodation, the food, the transportation,the communication, and the provision of souvenirs). Therefore,tourism activities require services provided by business; these setof services and activities form the tourism experiences. Further, itis generally accepted that tourism experiences have multidimensional facets. Walls, Okumus, Wang, and Kwun (2011) analyzedthe theoretical underpinnings of customer experience by examining the definitions of experience and the contextual nature of customer experiences. Their study suggests that the perception ofcustomer experience has numerous foundational origins thathave complicated its growth as a viable and valued concept, andproposes a framework to better understand this construct in atourism and hospitality context.Providing tourists with memorable experiences is importantfor success in a highly competitive tourism marketplace (Kim,2014). In order to gain a competitive advantage, it is crucial fororganizations and companies to offer and deliver experiences

xivINTRODUCTIONthat are demanded

Marketing Tourism Attraction Experiences Rachel Dodds and Lee Jolliffe 113 v. Part II Managing: Organizing and Delivering Tourism Experiences CHAPTER 7 Cultural and Experiential Tourism Hilary du Cros 133 CHAPTER 8 Dragon Boat Intangible Cultural Heritage: Management Challenges of a Community and E lite Sport Event as a Tourism Experience Fleur Fallon 155 CHAPTER 9