Weimar And Nazi Germany, 1918 – 39 Revision And Workbook


Weimar and Nazi Germany,1918 – 39GCSE History Revision GuideName:Form:1

How do I answer paper 3?This page introduces you to the main features and requirements of the Paper 3 exam.About Paper 3The Paper 3 exam lasts for Paper 3 is for your modern depth study.1 hour and 20 minutes (80 Weimar and Nazi Germany, 1918-39 is option 31.minutes). There are 52 It is divided up into two sections: Section A and Section B. Youmarks in total. You shouldmust answer all questions in both sections.spend approximately 25 You will receive two documents: a question paper, which youminutes on Section A andwrite on, and a Sources/ Interpretations booklet which you willneed for section B.55 minutes on Section B.The questionsSection A: Question 1Give two things you can infer from Source A about . (4marks)Complete the table.Section A: Question 2Explain why . (12 marks)Two prompts and your own information.Section B: Question 3(a)How useful are sources B and C for an enquiry into .? (8marks)Use the sources and your knowledge of the historicalcontext.Section B: Question 3(b)Study interpretations 1 and 2 .What is the main difference between these views? (4marks)Use details from both interpretations.Section B: Question 3(c)Suggest one reason why Interpretations 1 and 2 givedifferent views about . (4 marks)Question 1 targets analysing, evaluatingand using sources to make judgements.Spend about six minutes on this question,which focuses on inference and analysingsources. Look out for the key term ‘infer’.Question 2 targets both showingknowledge and understanding of the topicand explaining and analysing events usinghistorical concepts such as causation,consequence, change, continuity, similarityand difference. Spend about 18 minutes onthis question.Question 3 targets the same skills asquestion 1. Spend about 12 minutes on thisquestion , which is about evaluating theusefulness of contemporary sources.Questions 3b and 3c target analysing,evaluating and making judgements aboutinterpretations. Spend about six minutes oneach of these questions, which are aboutsuggesting and explaining why theinterpretations differ.You can use the sources provided to help explain youranswer.Section B: Question 3(d)How far do you agree with Interpretation 1 / 2 about .? (16 marks 4 marks for SPaG and use of specialistterminology)Use both interpretations and your knowledge of thehistorical context.Question 3(d) also targets these sameskills. Spend about 32 minutes on thisquestion, which is about evaluating aninterpretation. Up to four marks areavailable for spelling, punctuation,grammar and use of specialist2terminology.

What are Sources and Interpretations and how are they used in the exam?This exam asks you to analyse and evaluate both sources and interpretations, and you need different skillsfor each.Questions 1 and 3(a)Questions 3(b), (c) and (d)Here you will be asked to read interpretations of aparticular enquiry or event from two differentHere you will be asked to look at sources. Thesehistorians. Unlike analysing sources, interpretations aresources could be propaganda posters, accountswritten after the time period or the event. They arefrom people at that time, photographs or anyoften written by historians or commentators whowritten or visual source that is from the period.express their views and opinions about historicalAs the sources are generated from that time itpeople, events and changes. As they are people’s viewsis helpful to think about the nature of theand judgements based on evidence there can besource, the origin, who produced it and thedifferences and sometimes clear disagreements, aboutpurpose for which it was produced.what people think.Content: What information can you getdirectly from the source and its caption? It isimportant to spend time reading and studyingsource before you read the exam questions.Selection: What has the author /artist chosen to include? Whathave they chosen to leave out?It’s important to consider both ofthese when you are thinkingabout reliability, usefulness andpurpose in a source.Bias: A source is still useful even if you think it is biased – itcan be good for assessing people’s opinions of an event, forexample.Hints and tips forexamining sources.Language: In written sources, theauthor’s language should give you cluesabout whether they are biased or evenunreliable. Using appropriate examplesby quoting directly from the source willhelp you gain better marks. Languagecan also tell you about the purpose of asource.Purpose: the reason the source wascreated could be one of the questionsitself, but this will also help you to assessits reliability and usefulness.Hints and tips for analysing and evaluating interpretationsHow complete?How objective?The interpretations can beHistorians can hold differentdifferent because they areviews because they come from aconcerned with finding out about particular school of thought.different aspects of the enquiryTherefore, their questions andand may cover different ground.answers are shaped by theirSometimes, historians set out towider views of society and how itlook at one aspect specifically,works and has worked in the past.whereas others may want to look This can have an importantat related issues in a broaderimpact on the judgements andsense.opinions they hold aboutOrigins: The caption should tellyou who produced the source andwhen. The origin will help youassess its reliability, usefulness andpurpose.What is the chosen emphasis?Sometimes, historians use thesame sources but reach differentviews because they place adifferent level of importance onthe same evidence. They mayhave access to the same materialsources as each other, but willdraw different conclusions aboutthe significance of that evidence.3

What was the impact of the First World War on Germany?The First World War ended in 1918 and left Germany scared and crumbling, having been defeated by the combinedforce of Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the USA. Friedrich Ebert, leader of the Social Democratic Party, became thefirst German president and declared Germany a republic. The Abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II (Emperor)What was the impact of the First World War onTimeline9 November 1918Germany?The Kaiser visited army headquarters in Two million German troops died and over fourSpa.million were wounded (11 million in total fought inMinisters tried to persuade the Kaiser tothe war).10abdicate. Government debts increased from 50 billion marksNovemberThe Kaiser refusedto 150 billion marks.1918Army officers refused to support the More than 750,000 Germans died because of foodThe KaiserKaisershortages.fled toThe Kaiser had no option but toThe devastating effects of the war left many people withHolland.abdicate.no option other than to revolt by striking and rioting.Revolution and the Declaration of the RepublicOnce the Kaiser had abdicated, the German Republic was declared on 9 November 1918.Philipp Scheidemann, of the SocialOn 10th November, Friedrich EbertDemocratic Party (SDP) the largest partysuspended the old Reichstag andin the German government (Reichstag),formed the Council of People’sdeclared the new Republic to theRepresentatives as a temporarycrowds. He was fearful that armedmeasure.rioters were preparing to declare acommunist government in Berlin, and,The Berlin street were crowded.keen to prevent this, he promoted aSome people were armed, hopingpeaceful transition.to take over parts of the city.Scheidemann talking to the crowdsfrom a window of a house in Berlin,9 November 1918.The armistice – the peace agreementbetween Germany and the Allies. It was signed on 11th November 1918 It was the first major decision of Ebert’s newgovernment. The terms of the peace, the Treaty ofVersailles, became a very big burden for thecountry,The Revolutionary period continued untilAugust 1919, when the Weimar Republicwas eventually established.War leaders outside therailway carriage wherethe armistice was signedon 11 November 1918.Why did the end of the First World War lead to economic and political problems for Germany?4

What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Weimar constitution?Democratic government was established in the drawing up of a new constitution. This was done on 31st July 1919, inthe town of Weimar, rather than in Berlin where there was still unrest.The Weimar ConstitutionTheHead of StatePresident Head of Weimar Republic, Elected by the people every sevenyears. Had some important politicalpowers. For example, the presidentchose the chancellor.Electorate Consisted of all men andwomen of 21 years oldand overChancellor Head of thegovernment in theWeimar Republic. Chose all governmentministers Cabinet The main decision –making body of thegovernment.The Parliament Made up of two houses: the Reichstag and the Reichsrat. Normally, all laws had to pass through both houses Proportional RepresentationReichstag The more powerful ofthe two houses Controlled taxation Directly elected by thepeople at least onceevery four yearsStrengths and weaknesses of the constitutionStrengths GovernmentProportional representation made sure smallparties had a fair share of seats.Women able to vote as well as menVoting age reduced from 25 to 21.No one group or person could have too muchpowerThere was an election for president every sevenyearsCentral government was more powerful thanbefore, but local government still retained power inthe regionsThe Reichsrat could regulate the power of theReichstag by delaying new laws.Reichsrat Also elected every fouryears. However, it representedthe regions of GermanyWeaknesses Proportional representation led to coalitiongovernments that were unstable, or found it difficultto have strong policies and often fell apart. Lack of strong government led to weakness in a crisisthat ended up with the president passing lawswithout the prior consent of the Reichstag, Article 48constitution enabled the president to do this. It was not the choice of the people so was not thatpopularDescribe the key strengths and the key weaknesses of the new constitution.5

Why was the Weimar Republic so unpopular?The Treaty of Versailles damaged Germany’s economy making the Weimar Republic weak from the start. Peopleblamed the leaders of the new German republic for signing it. They were labelled the ‘November Criminals’ becausethey surrendered in November 1918 and were seen as traitors to their country.The treaty and reparationsAs the war guilt clause made Germany accept the blame for the war,the Allies said they were entitled to reparations (compensation). 6.6billion was to be paid in yearly instalments to the Allied to repairdamage in their countriesThe Treaty and Military forces Army limited to 100,000 Navy limited to six battleships, six cruisers, 12 destroyers and12 torpedo boats (and no submarines)Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles saidAll planes were destroyed and no air force was allowedthat Germany was guilty of starting the war. No military was allowed in the land bordering France (theOrdinary German people hated this blameand felt very resentful because of it. TheyRhineland)believed they fought the war in self –defence and that other countries were toblame.The treaty and land lossesMemel was taken by Lithuania in1923.Polish corridor (Posen and WestPrussia) was lost to PolandNorthern Schleswig voted tobecome part of DenmarkEupen and Malmedy were lostto BelgiumUpper Silesia voted to becomepart of PolandAlsace and Lorraine were lost toFranceGermany also lost 11 of its colonies.The ‘stab in the back’ theoryGerman people never believed their army had been defeated in the war. Those who criticised the treatysaid that the army had been betrayed by politicians – that they were ‘stabbed in the back’ and forced tosurrender.RememberLandArmsMoneyBlame6

What were the threats to the Weimar Republic from the left and the right?The new Weimar Republic government faced opposition from groups inside and outside the Reichstag, andfrom both the left and right wings.The Freikorps Right wing Made up of ex – soldiers who had kept theirweapons Had 250000 men in March 1919 Organised by regular armyThe Spartacists Left – wing Came from the independent Socialist Party Had soviet backing Led by Roas Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht Based in BerlinChallenge from the left – the Spartacist revoltIn January 1919, the Spartacists took over thegovernment’s newspaper and telegraph bureau, andtried to organise a general strike in Berlin, The Weimargovernment sent Freikorps units to put down therevolt.There was street fightingin Berlin for several daysbefore the revolt endedand Spartacist leaderswere shot.Political attacks on the Weimar RepublicLeft – wingparties in theReichstagTheSpartacist revoltLeft – wingand right –wing politicalarmiesRight – wing partiesin the ReichstagTheKappPutschRight – wingbias in thePoliticalcourtsassassinationsThe WeimarRepublicChallenge from the right – the Kapp PutschIn March 1920, Freikorps troops, fearing unemployment,decided to march on Berlin. Ebert asked the head of thearmy to resist the Freikorps but he refused. A nationalistpolitician, Dr Wolfgang Kapp, was put in charge by the rebelsand the Weimar government fled Berlin seeking safety. Inorder to put down the rebels, or Kapp Putsch as it becameknown, the government organised the trade unions to go onstrike. This they did and the national strike caused suchchaos that Kapp could not rule Germany and was forced toflee. The Weimar ministers returned.Political Assassinations From 1919 – 1923 politicians in the Weimar Republic wereworried about assassinations In the early years of the republic, 376 politicalassassinations took place Some right – wing extremists used the murders to weakenthe new republic Conservative judges were sympathetic to the conservativecause and gave them light punishment.Describe the role of the FreiKorps in the Kapp Putsch and Spartacits revolt.Why did the government deal so harshly with the Spartacists?7


Once the Kaiser had abdicated, the German Republic was declared on 9 November 1918. Scheidemann talking to the crowds from a window of a house in Berlin, 9 November 1918. On 10. th. November, Friedrich Ebert suspended the old Reichstag and formed the ouncil of Peoples Representatives as a temporary measure. The Berlin street were crowded. Some people were armed, hoping to take over