Community Based Management Of Acute Malnutrition Project


CommunityBasedManagement ofAcuteMalnutrition(CMAM)Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) is adecentralised community-based approach to treating acute malnutrition.Treatment is matched to the nutritional and clinical needs of the child, withthe majority children receiving treatment at home using ready-to-use foods.In-patient care is provided only for complicated cases of acute malnutrition.CMAM consists of four components: (1) stabilisation care for acutemalnutrition with complications, (2) out-patient therapeutic care for severeacute malnutrition without complications, (3) supplementary feeding formoderate acute malnutrition and (4) community mobilisation.CMAM is an evidenced-based model, currently implemented in more than 70countries worldwide, and is the globally endorsed standard for managementof acute malnutrition. It is an appropriate model to address acute malnutrition,both in development and humanitarian contexts. The key objective of aCMAM programme is to reduce mortality and morbidity from acutemalnutrition by providing timely diagnosis and effective treatment of acutemalnutrition, and through building local capacity (health system andcommunity) in the identification and management of acute malnutrition.

Contents1.Model Snapshot.51.1.Contribution to global sector approaches and child well-being (CWB) aspirations .52. Model Description.52.1.Strategic relevance of this model ibutes to CWB objectives and Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets . 5Sector alignment . 5Expected benefits (impact) of the model .5Root problem causes and core benefits . 5Target beneficiaries with emphasis on most vulnerable children . 5Contribution to transforming beliefs, norms, values and relationships . 6Key features of the model .6Methodology . 6Implementation steps . 7Implementation details . 8Level of evidence for the model .8Evidence analysis framework . 8Evidence of effectiveness . 8Evidence gaps . 8Sustainability of outcomes . 9Evidence rating . 9External validity .9Countries and contexts where the model was tested . 9Contextual factors . 103. Model Implementation Considerations .103.1Adaptation scope during design and implementation . contexts . 11Transitioning economies . 11Partnering scope .12Case studies of successful partnering for this model . 12Value proposition of partnering . 123.3.Local to national advocacy (as relevant) .134. Programme Logic .144.1.Pathways of Change and Logic Diagram .144.2.Framework of indicators and alignment to CWB objectives .154.3.Information flow and use .185. Management Considerations .195.2.Guidelines for staffing .195.3.Budget .226. Linkages and Integration .226.1.Child focus .226.2Development Programme Approach (DPA) .236.3Faith .236.4Integration and enabling project models .247. Field Guides .25

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List of MAMOTPRUTFSAMSCSFPSDGTSOWFHWFPWHOWVAnalyse, Design and Planning Toolarea development programmechild well-beingCitizen Voice and Actioncommunity-based therapeutic carecommunity health workerCommunity Management of Acute Malnutritionglobal acute malnutritionnon-governmental organisationmid-upper arm circumferenceMinistry of Healthmoderate acute malnutritionoutpatient therapeutic programmeready-to-use therapeutic foodsevere acute malnutritionstabilization centressupplementary feeding programmeSustainable Development GoalsTechnical Services Organisationweight-for-heightWorld Food ProgrammeWorld Health OrganizationWorld Vision4

1. Model Snapshot1.1. Contribution to global sector approaches and child well-being (CWB)aspirationsCommunity Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) is the globally endorsed approach for treatment ofacute malnutrition. The model is included in government protocols for the management of acute malnutrition inmore than 70 countries. The purpose of CMAM is to ensure acutely malnourished children are treated effectivelyand in a timely manner, thereby reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality. A child with severe acutemalnutrition (SAM) is nine times more likely to die than a healthy child. Using the CMAM approach, most childrenwith acute malnutrition ( 85%) can receive treatment at home, with weekly visits to a local health centre, makingcare much more accessible than compared to traditional feeding centres. CMAM is a core project model in theWorld Vision (WV) Health and Nutrition sector, and it contributes directly to the CWB aspiration of 'childrenenjoy good health.'2. Model Description2.1. Strategic relevance of this model2.1.1. Contributes to CWB objectives and Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targetsThe project model contributes directly to the CWB objective of 'increase in children who are well-nourished(ages 0-5)' and indirectly to the 'increase in children protected from infection and diseases (ages 0–5)' objective,both of which subsequently contribute to SDG Targets #2 and # Sector alignment Primary sector: Health and NutritionContributing sector: Child ProtectionContributing sector: Food (CMAM includes targeted supplementary feeding for treatment of moderate acutemalnutrition)2.2. Expected benefits (impact) of the model2.2.1Root problem causes and core benefitsMalnutrition is the leading contributor to child mortality, the underlying cause in over 45 percent of under-5childhood deaths.2 The associated effects of poverty, inadequate household access to food, infectious disease,inadequate breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices often lead to illness, growth faltering, nutrientdeficiencies, delayed development and death, particularly during the first two years of life.3 Overarching issuessuch as political and civil conflicts, environmental degradation and natural disasters, increase vulnerability to acutemalnutrition.CMAM provides effective treatment for acute malnutrition, reducing morbidity and mortality. Compared totraditional approaches (institutional therapeutic feeding centres), CMAM uses a decentralised approach, reachingmany children and achieving high coverage rates. This model should always be implemented alongside otherinterventions such as water and sanitation, health, food security/food aid, and livelihoods to address the rootcauses of malnutrition.2.2.2Target beneficiaries with emphasis on most vulnerable childrenThe primary target group of CMAM are children between 6 and 59 months of age who are suffering from acutemalnutrition, and, on a smaller scale, pregnant (in the last trimester) and lactating mothers with an infant lessthan 6 months of age. All eligible children within a community are screened for acute malnutrition at the beginning1SDG 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture; SDG 3: Ensure healthy lives andpromote well-being for all at all ages.2R.E. Black, C.G. Victora, S.P. Walker and the Maternal and Child Nutrition Study Group, ‘Maternal and child undernutrition andoverweight in low-income and middle-income countries’, The Lancet, Vol. 382, Issue 9890 (2013) 427–451, published online June 6. 6736(13)60937-X.3FANTA, ‘Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition’

of the project to identify those with acute malnutrition. House-to-house screening will ensure that marginalisedgroups such as orphans, children with disabilities, and girls are intentionally assessed for eligibility. Indirectbeneficiaries of CMAM programmes include families of children under 5, community leaders and communityhealth workers, all of whom are empowered with knowledge on the causes and consequences of acutemalnutrition and on available treatment. The project also indirectly benefits the households of children who areenrolled in CMAM, as families save time and money by effectively treating a malnourished child at home ratherthan travelling to in-patient care facilities for treatment.2.2.3Contribution to transforming beliefs, norms, values and relationshipsFrequently, the underlying causes of acute malnutrition are poorly understood. It is attributed to curses, taboos,or evil spirits. Such values act as significant barriers to access treatment for this condition. A core component ofthe CMAM model is community mobilisation, which involves building the community understanding on the causesof acute malnutrition, and signs and symptoms and effective treatment, thereby working to overcome harmfultraditional beliefs and practices. Trusted faith actors have an important role to play in addressing these normsby providing correct health information along with addressing the underlying causes. In additio

Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) . The project model contributes directly to the CWB objective of 'increase in children who are well-nourished (ages 0-5)' and indirectly to the 'increase in children protected from infection and diseases (ages 0–5)' objective, both of which subsequently contribute to SDG Targets #2 and #3.1 2.1.2. Sector alignment Primary sector: Health and Nutrition .