HOUSEKEEPING Engage in today’s learning session by utilizing the voting & chatfeatures in Zoom All lines have been muted Today’s session is being recorded and will be available for reviewon the program website Bookmark the Resources & Templates web /

LEARNING OBJECTIVES Review the critical actions for Measure phase in the DMAICframework Discuss Key Process Variables & how they can impact the productor service Discuss data sampling methods Explore components of a data collection plan Review how to graphically present information related to aprocess’s performance

PREVIOUS DAY RECAP Discussed the core components of a Project Plan Reviewed what a stakeholder is & how to engage with themstrategically Explored how to collect information on what the Customer values &turn it into a measurement that can be analyzed Reviewed the process for creating a Cross-Functional Process Map Discussed the how a SIPOC identifies key process inputs & outputs

DMAIC FRAMEWORKDMAIC is a systematic process to solve problems & improve business performanceDefineControlImproveMeasureAnalyze

MEASURE PHASEKey Actions Create a data collection plan & ensure methods result in a reliablemeasurement system Collect data on key inputs, outputs, & variables Expose underlying causes of the problem by analyzing data related todefects, variation, process flow, & speed Establish baseline on how current process performs Revise Project Charter as needed to reflect data collection findings** Refer to Chapter 13 in the Green Belt self study guide underSupplemental Reading

PROCESS VARIABLESKey Process Input Variables (KPIV)A process input that provides a significant impact on the outputvariationKey Process Output Variables (KPOV)A process output is determined by the input variablesWhen making a cup of coffee the quality & quantity of the inputs(coffee, sugar, water, milk) have an impact on the output (taste of thebeverage).

WORKSHEET: SIPOC DIAGRAMSupplier: Who or whatsupplies the process withthese items?Input: What raw goods orinformation feed theprocess?Process: What are themajor steps used to convertinputs to an output?Output: What product orservice does the processmake?Customer: Who or whatuses this product?**For more information,refer to Chapter 7 of YellowBelt Self Study Guide

DATA COLLECTION PLANA document that specifies the type and way project data isto be collectedAnswers critical to success questions– What data is to be collected?– Who will collect the data?– What units of measurement will be utilized?– What stratification factors are to be applied?– Over what time period will the data be collected?– How frequently will the data be collected?– What is the sample size collected at each point in time?– Does data exist or does it need to be constructed?

DATA TYPESDiscrete Data A count that can’t be made more precise because it involves whole,indivisible units Easily to obtain and calculations are simple No insight about why the variation occurred Requires larger sample size“The count of expense reports with errors”“The number of students who passed the assessment”Continuous Data Data that can be measured and broken into smaller parts Provides detailed information with a small sampler size“The cycle time for approving an expense report”“The students assessment scores”

DATA SAMPLINGPopulation: Total group of itemsbeing studiedSample: Sub-group of the populationSample Bias: Occurs whendifferences are introduced into thesample as a result of the samplingprocessData PopulationDataSample

SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLINGEvery unit has an equal chance to be selected within thepopulation

STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLINGEvery unit has an equal chance to be selected within a stratum ofthe population

SYSTEMATIC SAMPLINGA method where every nth unit is selected from a population

OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONSA clear, detailed description of what is being observed & measured. Ensures differentpeople will collect and interpret the information consistently.What are you trying to measure?“Amount of time Faculty members spend performing service for the University”What is not included?“Faculty members not paid by the University”“Time spent presenting to groups in the community e.g. Rotary, Chambers ofCommerce, Schools”How do you define the measure?“Service Time spent in scheduled meeting for University’s standing committeesTime spent preparing for meeting and includes document review, reportgeneration, phone calls related to committee work”How is the measure to be taken?“Time documented in Committee’s meeting minutes”

GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS TOOLSPareto Chart: Analyzes the frequency ofproblems or causes in a processRun Rate Chart: Displays a value over timeControl Chart: Graphically shows whether aprocess is in a state of statistical controlHistogram: A bar chart that shows variationwithin a process

SPAGHETTI DIAGRAM“A visual representation using a continuous flow line tracing the pathof an item or activity through a process.”Benefits Identifies inefficiencies in workareas Illustrates where there is wasteof transportation or motion Shows where bottlenecks & waitoccurs Measures time & distance ofeach path

SPAGHETTI DIAGRAMHow to create1. Plot physical layout of process on paper using scaling2. Using a single line, draw the start to finish flow using different colors foreach applicable categorya.b.c.d.ProductsPaperPeopleDigital Information3. Notate any wait time or bottlenecks4. Measure the time and/or distance of each path, number of hand-offs,and other related information5. Repeat for each trip** Include small steps & repeated motions


neomed template introduction to lean six sigma principles day 4: march 24, 2020